Curriculum vitae

Menéndez Marta

Maître de conférences

Marta.Menendezping@dauphinepong.fr
Tel : + 33 (0)1 44 05 44 60
Bureau : P115

Publications

Articles

Menéndez M., Siroën J-M., Sztulman A. (2015), Are Free Trade Zones a Development Model?, Dialogue, 41, p. 2-12

A partir des années 1980, la plupart des pays en développement adoptent des politiques commerciales ouvertes. Ils abaissent leurs droits de douane, adhérent à l'OMC et, pour certains d'entre eux, négocient des accords de libreéchange.

Bourguignon F., Ferreira F., Menéndez M. (2013), Inequality of Opportunity in Brazil: A Corrigendum, The Review of Income and Wealth, 59, 3, p. 551-555

This note acknowledges and corrects a programming error in our paper "Inequality of Opportunity in Brazil" (Review of Income and Wealth, 53(4), 585-618, 2007). Once the error is corrected, our bounds approach to the identification of individual model parameters in the presence of omitted variable biases is much less useful than indicated in the original paper. In the specific context of the measurement of inequality of opportunity, this implies that the decomposition of overall inequality of opportunity into direct and indirect effects is not reliable. However, the parametric approach introduced in our paper remains useful for obtaining a lower-bound estimate of overall ex-ante inequality of opportunity, as proposed by Ferreira and Gignoux (2011).

Sztulman A., Menéndez M., Castilho M. (2012), Trade Liberalization, Inequality and Poverty in Brazilian States, World development, 40, 4, p. 821-835

This paper studies the impact of trade liberalization and international trade on household income inequality and poverty using detailed micro-data across Brazilian states, from 1987 to 2005. Results suggest that Brazilian states that were more exposed to tariff cuts experienced smaller reductions in household poverty and inequality. If significance of results on Brazilian states depends on the choice of poverty and inequality indicators, robust and contrasting results emerge when we disaggregate into rural and urban areas within states. Trade liberalization contributes to poverty and inequality increases in urban areas and may be linked to inequality declines in rural areas (no significant effect on rural poverty appears from our study). In terms of observed integration to world markets, import penetration plays a similar role as trade liberalization for Brazilian states as a whole. On the contrary, rising export exposure appears to have significantly reduced both measures of household welfare.

Suwa-Einsenmann A., Postel-Vinay G., Bourdieu J., Menéndez M. (2008), Where have (almost) all the wealthy gone ? Spatial decomposition of wealth trends in France, 1820-1939, Revue d'études en agriculture et environnement, 87, 2, p. 5-25

Cet article analyse l'évolution de la distribution de la richesse en France durant le processus d'urbanisation entre 1820 et 1939, à partir d'une base de données individuelles de successions. Nous explorons la dimension géographique de l'évolution de la répartition des patrimoines en distinguant Paris, les autres villes et les territoires ruraux. Nous utilisons des techniques de décompositions non paramétriques et de micro-simulations pour mesurer l'importance de la croissance économique et de l'urbanisation dans l'accumulation du patrimoine. Les changements dans le niveau de richesse expliquent une grande part de l'évolution de la répartition de la richesse pendant toute la période entre 1830 et 1939, tandis que l'effet de l'urbanisation sur la distribution du patrimoine augmente à la fin du 19e siècle.

This paper examines the evolution of wealth distribution in France during the urbanization process of the nineteenth century, based on a comprehensive dataset of individual inheritances. It presents a spatial decomposition between rural and urban areas, distinguishing Paris from the rest of other cities. Two types of decomposition are compared: a decomposition based on scalar inequality indices and a non-parametric approach based on wealth density functions. Changes in the level of wealth explained most of the spatial evolution of wealth during 1820-1939; at the turn of the century however, the effect of urbanization on wealth distribution increased gradually.

Albornoz F., Menéndez M. (2007), Income Dynamics in Argentina During the 1990's : "Mobiles" Do Change with type of Macroeconomic Shock, Económica, LIII, 1-2, p. 21-52

Using panel data from Argentina during the 1990's, this paper concludes that, in Argentina, income 'mobiles' did change over time. Among the household variables with a structural relation with income dynamics, we find university education, protecting from income declines though not necessarily linked to upward movements, certain age ranges of the highest earner positively associated with family income losses and households in which the highest earner is a woman exhibiting larger income gains. Interestingly, once we controlled for other correlates, no clear structural relationship was found between initial economic position and subsequent income change.

Bourguignon F., Ferreira F., Menéndez M. (2007), Inequality of Opportunity in Brazil, The Review of Income and Wealth, 53, 4, p. 585-618

This paper proposes a measure of the contribution of unequal opportunities to earnings inequality. Drawing on the distinction between 'circumstance' and 'effort' variables in John Roemer's work on equality of opportunity, we associate inequality of opportunities with five observed circumstances which lie beyond the control of the individual - father's and mother's education; father's occupation; race; and region of birth. The paper provides a range of estimates of the importance of these opportunity-forming circumstances in accounting for earnings inequality in one of the world's most unequal countries. We also decompose the effect of opportunities into a direct effect on earnings and an indirect component, which works through the "effort" variables. The decomposition is applied to the distribution of male earnings in urban Brazil, in 1996. The five observed circumstances are found to account for between 10% and 37% of the Theil index, depending on cohort and allowing for the possibility of biased coefficient estimates due to unobserved correlates. On average, sixty percent of this impact operates through the direct effect on earnings. Parental education is the most important circumstance affecting earnings, but the occupation of the father and race also play a role.

Fields G., Cichello P., Freije S., Menéndez M., Newhouse D. (2003), For Richer or for Poorer ? Evidence from Indonesia, South Africa, Spain, and Venezuela, The Journal of Economic Inequality, 1, 1, p. 67-99

We analyze household income dynamics using longitudinal data from Indonesia, South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), Spain and Venezuela. In all four countries, households with the lowest reported base-year income experienced the largest absolute income gains. This result is robust to reasonable amounts of measurement error in two of the countries. In three of the four countries, households with the lowest predicted base-year income experienced gains at least as large as their wealthier counterparts. Thus, with one exception, the empirical importance of cumulative advantage, poverty traps, and skill-biased technical change was no greater than structural or macroeconomic changes that favored initially poor households in these four countries.

Fields G., Cichello P., Freije S., Menéndez M., Newhouse D. (2003), Household income dynamics : a four-country story, The Journal of Development Studies, 40, 2, p. 30-54

In this article, we analyse the dynamics of household per capita incomes using longitudinal data from Indonesia, South Africa, Spain and Venezuela. We find that in all four countries reported initial income and job changes of the head are consistently the most important variables in accounting for income changes, overall and for initially poor households. We also find that changes in income are more important than changes in household size and that changes in labour earnings are more important than changes in other sources of household income.

Chapitres d'ouvrage

Fall M., Menéndez M. (2008), L'apport des analyses longitudinales dans la connaissance des phénomènes de pauvreté et exclusion sociale, in Observatoire national de la pauvreté et de l'exclusion sociale (France) . (dir.), Les travaux de L'Observatoire national de la pauvreté et l'exclusion sociale 2007-2008, Paris, Documentation française

Fields G., Cichello P., Freije S., Menéndez M., Newhouse D. (2003), Escaping from Poverty : New Evidence on Household Income Dynamics, in Fields G., Pfeffermann G. (eds), Pathways out of poverty : private firms and economic mobility in developing countries, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers

Communications

Gignoux J., Menéndez M. (2014), Short and Long Run Effects of Earthquakes on Farm Businesses in Indonesia, EAAE 2014 Congress : "Agri-Food and Rural Innovations for Healthier Societies", Ljubljana, Slovénie

This paper studies the impact of earthquakes on farm business assets in rural Indonesia. Using a panel fixed effects model, we evaluate if the negative consequences of earthquakes extend beyond the immediate event into the medium and long-term. Our results suggest that rural households were able to recover in the medium -run, and even exhibit welfare gains in the long-run. Productive assets in farm businesses were on average reconstituted and even increased in the medium-run. Thus, reconstruction strategies after large earthquakes seem to provide incentives to small farm business holders to reconstitute and increase their investments.

Menéndez M., Gignoux J. (2012), Critical periods and the long-run effects of income shocks on education: evidence from Indonesia, 26th Annual Conference of the European Society for Population Economics, Bern, Suisse

This paper examines how adverse shocks experienced by households, such as natural disasters, crop or job losses, or deaths, influence the acquisition of human capital of children, in the long run, and investigates whether some periods of childhood appear to be more critical in the sense that shocks during those have more lasting impacts. We use data from the four waves of the Indonesian Family Life Surveys (1993, 1997, 2000 and 2007), and follow a panel of siblings from early ages into young adulthood. Our preliminary results exhibit heterogeneities by areas and types of shocks: in the long-run, natural disasters, deaths and market shocks are found to negatively affect educational attainments of children in urban households, while crop losses have a similar long-lasting effect in rural areas. Moreover, we find little evidence in this sample that shocks experienced earlier in life have more lasting impacts than later ones. Finally, our preliminary findings do not indicate that locality-level negative shocks have direct effects on human capital investments beyond the direct losses suffered by households. This study is still ongoing, and an important progress under way is the use of objective data on shocks using meteorological data on natural disasters, and notably earthquakes, that occurred in Indonesia over the last 20 years or so.

Menéndez M., Castilho M., Sztulman A. (2009), Trade Liberalization, Inequality and Poverty in Brazilian States, Premier Colloque bi-annuel du GDRI DREEM : " Inégalités et développement dans les pays méditerranéens", Istanbul, Turquie

This paper studies the impact of trade liberalization and international trade on household income inequality and poverty using detailed micro-data across Brazilian states, from 1987 to 2005. Results suggest that Brazilian states that were more exposed to tariff cuts experienced smaller reductions in household poverty and inequality. If significance of results on Brazilian states depends on the choice of poverty and inequality indicators, robust and contrasting results emerge when we disaggregate into rural and urban areas within states. Trade liberalization contributes to poverty and inequality increases in urban areas and may be linked to inequality declines in rural areas (no significant effect on rural poverty appears from our study). In terms of observed integration to world markets, import penetration plays a similar role as trade liberalization for Brazilian states as a whole. On the contrary, rising export exposure appears to have significantly reduced both measures of household welfare.

Documents de travail

Gignoux J., Menéndez M. (2014), Benefit in the wake of disaster: Long-run effects of earthquakes on welfare in rural Indonesia, DIAL Document de travail, Paris, Université Paris Dauphine, 44

Nous examinons les effets économiques à long terme d'une série de tremblements de terre - nombreux, importants, mais pas dévastateurs- ayant eu lieu en Indonésie rurale depuis 1985. A partir des données individuelles longitudinales provenant d'enquêtes ménages largement représentatives, ainsi que des mesures précises de l'intensité des tremblements de terre calculées à partir de la base de données US Geological Survey, nous identifions les effets des tremblements de terre en exploitant leurs variations spatiales et temporelles quasi-aléatoires. Les individus ayant subi les tremblements accusent des pertes économiques à court terme, mais les compensent à moyen terme (après une période de deux à cinq ans), et présentent même des gains économiques à long terme (de six à douze ans). Les stocks de biens de production, notamment dans les exploitations agricoles, sont reconstitués et les infrastructures publiques améliorées, apparemment en partie grâce à l'aide extérieure, ce qui permet de rétablir les niveaux de productivité. Ces résultats tendent à rejeter la présence de trappes de pauvreté, et révèlent les bénéfices potentiels à long terme d'interventions post-catastrophe bien conçues dans un contexte où les catastrophes affectent principalement les actifs physiques.

We examine the long-term effects on individual economic outcomes of a set of earthquakes - numerous, large, but mostly not extreme - that occurred in rural Indonesia since 1985. Using longitudinal individual-level data from large-scale household surveys, together with precise measures of local ground tremors obtained from a US Geological Survey database, we identify the effects of earthquakes, exploiting the quasi-random spatial and temporal nature of their distribution. Affected individuals experience short-term economic losses but recover in the medium-run (after two to five years), and even exhibit income and welfare gains in the long term (six to twelve years). The stocks of productive assets, notably in farms, get reconstituted and public infrastructures are improved, seemingly partly through external aid, allowing productivity to recover. These findings tend to discount the presence of poverty traps, and exhibit the potential long-term benefits from well-designed post-disaster interventions in context where disasters primarily affect physical assets.

Mage-Bertomeu S., Menéndez M., Jusot F. (2014), Inequality of Opportunity in Health in Indonesia, DIAL Document de travail, Paris, Université Paris-Dauphine, 35

Les pays en développement sont particulièrement concernés par la question des inégalités de santé et notamment celle de l'inégalité des chances. Néanmoins, très peu de travaux sont proposés dans le cadre des économies endéveloppement. Cet article étudie l'ampleur des inégalités des chances en matière de santé en Indonésie à partir de données recueillies par l'enquête IFLS (Indonesian Family Life Survey) de 2007 qui propose une information individuelle détaillée sur l'état de santé (bio-marqueurs et auto-évaluation) mais aussi sur l'environnement socioéconomique.Un indicateur synthétique continu de l'état de santé global calculé à partir d'un ensemble complet d'informations sur la santé est dans un premier temps proposé. Des méthodes paramétriques et non paramétriques sont ensuitemobilisées pour mesurer le niveau de l'inégalité des chances dans le domaine de la santé. Les résultats mettenten évidence une importante inégalité des chances relative à l'état de santé en Indonésie par rapport au niveau d'inégalité observée dans les pays européens. Le principal vecteur de transmission de l'inégalité est le statut de santé des parents (statut vital) et en particulier celui de la mère. L'impact du niveau d'éducation des parents estindirect (agissant sur l'environnement socio-économique, le statut marital et la migration des descendants) et est beaucoup plus faible que celui généralement observé dans des économies plus développées. Les disparités à long terme de l'état de santé liées à la religion, à la langue pratiquée et plus encore à la région d'habitation suggèrentque les variables d'appartenance communautaire sont prépondérantes pour analyser la question de l'équité en santé dans un pays en développement comme l'Indonésie.

Whereas health equity issues are undoubtedly more relevant in developing countries, research on healthinequalities and, more specifically, on inequality of opportunity in the health dimension, remains scarce in this context. This paper explores the degree of inequality of opportunity in health in a developing country, using the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey, a large-scale survey with extremely rich information about individualhealth outcomes (biomarkers and self-reports) and individual circumstances.We compute a continuous synthetic index of global health status based on a comprehensive set of healthindicators and subsequently implement non-parametric and parametric methods in order to quantify the level ofinequality of opportunity in the health dimension. Our results show large inequality of opportunities in health inIndonesia, compared to European countries. Concerning transmission mechanisms, parental (particularly maternal) vital status appears as the main channel. Compared to what has been observed in more developed countries, the effect of parental education on health is relatively smaller, and mainly indirect (passing through descendants' socioeconomic, marital and migration statuses), while the existence of long-term differences in health related to religion, language spoken and particularly province of location suggest a relatively higher relevance of community belonging variables for health equity in the context of a developing country asIndonesia.

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