Curriculum vitae

Bessec Marie

Maître de conférences

Marie.BESSECping@dauphinepong.fr
Tel : + 33 (0)1 44 05 44 64
Bureau : P137

Publications

Articles

Bessec M., Fouquau J., Meritet S. (2016), Forecasting electricity spot prices using time-series models with a double temporal segmentation, Applied Economics, 48, 5, p. 361-378

The French wholesale market is set to expand in the next few years under European pressure and national decisions. In this article, we assess the forecasting ability of several classes of time-series models for electricity wholesale spot prices at a day-ahead horizon in France. Electricity spot prices display a strong seasonal pattern, particularly in France, given the high share of electric heating in housing during winter time. To deal with this pattern, we implement a double temporal segmentation of the data. For each trading period and season, we use a large number of specifications based on market fundamentals: linear regressions, Markov-switching (MS) models and threshold models with a smooth transition. An extensive evaluation on French data shows that modelling each season independently leads to better results. Among nonlinear models, MS models designed to capture the sudden and fast-reverting spikes in the price dynamics yield more accurate forecasts. Finally, pooling forecasts give more reliable results.

Bessec M., Bouabdallah O. (2015), Forecasting GDP over the business cycle in a multi-frequency and data-rich environment, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 77, 3, p. 360-384

This paper merges two specifications recently developed in the forecasting literature: the MS-MIDAS model (Guérin and Marcellino, 2013) and the factor-MIDAS model (Marcellino and Schumacher, 2010). The MS-factor MIDAS model that we introduce incorporates the information provided by a large data set consisting of mixed frequency variables and captures regime-switching behaviours. Monte Carlo simulations show that this specification tracks the dynamics of the process and predicts the regime switches successfully, both in-sample and out-of-sample. We apply this model to US data from 1959 to 2010 and properly detect recessions by exploiting the link between GDP growth and higher frequency financial variables.

Bessec M., Doz C. (2014), Short-term forecasting of French GDP growth using dynamic factor models, Journal of business cycle measurement and analysis, 2013, 2, p. 11-50

In recent years, central banks and international organisations have been making ever greater use of factor models to forecast macroeconomic variables. We examine the performance of these models in forecasting French GDP growth over short horizons. The factors are extracted from a large data set of around one hundred variables including survey balances and real, financial, and international variables. An out-of-sample pseudo real-time evaluation over the past decade shows that factor models provide a gain in accuracy relative to the usual benchmarks. However, the forecasts remain inaccurate before the start of the quarter. We also show that the inclusion of international and financial variables can improve forecasts at the longest horizons.

Bessec M. (2013), Short-term forecasts of French GDP: A dynamic factor model with targeted predictors, Journal of Forecasting, 32, 6, p. 500-511

In recent years, factor models have received increasing attention from both econometricians and practitioners in the forecasting of macroeconomic variables. In this context, Bai and Ng (2008) find an improvement in selecting indicators according to the forecast variable prior to factor estimation (targeted predictors). In particular, they propose using the LARS-EN algorithm to remove irrelevant predictors. In this paper, we adapt the Bai and Ng procedure to a setup in which data releases are delayed and staggered. In the pre-selection step, we replace actual data with estimates obtained on the basis of past information, where the structure of the available information replicates the one a forecaster would face in real time. We estimate on the reduced dataset the dynamic factor model of Giannone, Reichlin and Small (2008) and Doz, Giannone and Reichlin (2011), which is particularly suitable for the very short-term forecast of GDP. A pseudo real-time evaluation on French data shows the potential of our approach.

Bec F., Bessec M. (2013), Inventory Investment Dynamics and Recoveries: A Comparison of Manufacturing and Retail Trade Sectors, Economics Bulletin, 33, 3, p. 2209-2222

This paper explores the existence of a bounce-back effect in inventory investment using the European Commission opinion survey on stocks of finished products in manufacturing and retail trade sectors for France, Germany and a European aggregate, from 1985q1 to 2011q4. Our empirical findings support the existence of a high recovery episode for inventory investment, during the quarters immediately following the recessions: it occurs later and lasts longer in manufacturing than in retail trade sector. Since a third phase of rapid recovery has not been found in final sales data so far, the rebound in inventories could in turn explain the GDP growth bounce-back pointed out in previous empirical studies. This calls for a careful modeling of the inventory investment behavior in any sensible theoretical explanation of aggregate business cycles.

Bessec M., Desbonnet A., Kankanamge S., Weitzenblum T. (2012), On interactions between public debt and transfer policies, Revue d'économie politique, 122, 6, p. 903-920

Dans cet article, nous analysons les interactions entre les politiques de dette publique et de transfert dans le modèle de Floden [2001], que nous étendons en modélisant la dynamique transitoire d'un état stationnaire à un autre. Dans un premier temps, dans le cas où la dette aurait atteint un niveau élevé, nous montrons qu'il est possible de mettre en oeuvre une politique de désendettement de l'Etat qui ne détériore pas le bien-être, en l'associant à un ajustement transitoire du transfert. Dans un second temps, nous proposons un équilibre intégrant les incitations à court terme de surprendre les agents en modifiant les niveaux de dette publique et de transferts. Nous montrons que l'optimum de long terme sur la dette et les transferts proposé par Floden [2001] n'est pas stable au regard de ces incitations. Quantitativement, l'équilibre que nous obtenons s'éloigne considérablement de ce dernier.

In this paper, we investigate the interactions between public debt and transfer policies in a framework based on Floden [2001], that we extend to allow for transitional dynamics between steady states. First, we show that, starting from a high level of public debt, it is possible to implement a policy that reduces public debt without generating welfare losses, as long as it is associated with transitory transfers adjustments. Secondly, we define and compute an equilibrium that takes into consideration the government's incentive to implement unexpected adjustments in both public debt and transfers. We show that the long run equilibrium over public debt and transfers in Floden [2001] is not stable with respect to these short term incentives. Simulations reveal that our equilibrium and Floden [2001]'s one considerably differ in quantitative terms.

Bec F., Ben Salem M., Bessec M. (2012), The role of inventories at the end of recessions : an empirical study from survey data, Revue d'économie politique, 122, 6, p. 811-822

Cet article explore empiriquement l'existence d'un effet rebond en sortie de crise dans les variations de stocks. Le modèle auto-régressif à seuil retenu ici autorise une dynamique de reprise en sortie de crise temporairement plus vigoureuse que la dynamique moyenne du régime d'expansion. Ce modèle est appliqué aux données d'enquête de la commission européenne concernant les entreprises du secteur manufacturier sur l'état de leurs stocks de produits finis. Pour l'Allemagne, la France et l'Europe entre 1985q1 et 2011q4, ces données révèlent une phase de reprise prononcée dans les trimestres qui suivent le creux de l'épisode de récession. Cet effet rebond des stocks pourrait à son tour expliquer celui du taux de croissance du PIB réel mis en évidence par des études récentes.

This paper explores the existence of a bounce-back effect in inventory investment using the European Community opinion survey on stocks of finished products in manufacturing. A threshold autoregression allowing for a transitory strong recovery phasis is estimated for French, German and European aggregate data from 1985q1 to 2011q4. The results support the existence of a high recovery episode for inventory investment during the quarters immediately following the recessions. This could in turn explain the real GDP growth rate bounce-back pointed out in previous empirical studies.

Bessec M., Doz C. (2012), Prévision de court terme de la croissance du PIB français à l'aide de modèles à facteurs dynamiques, Economie & prévision, 1, 199, p. 1-30

Les modèles à facteurs sont de plus en plus utilisés pour la prévision de court terme du PIB par les banques centrales et les grands organismes internationaux. Ils semblent en revanche un peu moins utilisés en France. Cet article propose une application de ces techniques à la prévision du taux de croissance trimestriel du PIB français à très court terme. Nous utilisons une base constituée d'une centaine de variables parmi lesquelles des variables d'enquêtes, des indicateurs réels, des variables monétaires et financières et des indicateurs sur l'environnement international. Une évaluation hors échantillon montre que la qualité des prévisions issues des modèles à facteurs est satisfaisante, même si les prévisions restent fragiles lorsque l'horizon de prévision est éloigné.

In recent years, factor models have received increasing interest from central banks and international organizations to forecast macroeconomic variables. We examine the performance of these models in forecasting the French GDP growth rate over short horizons. The factors are extracted from a large data set including surveys balances, real, financial and international variables. A pseudo real time evaluation over the last decade exhibits a gain relative to the usual benchmarks. However, forecasts remain inaccurate before the beginning of the quarter. We also show that the use of international and financial variables can improve forecasts at the longest horizons.

Bessec M. (2010), Bridge Models for French GDP Growth Using Business-Survey Data, Economie & prévision, 2, 193, p. 77-99

Cet article développe des étalonnages du taux de croissance du PIB français destinés à produire des prévisions de très court terme de l'activité. Ils sont construits exclusivement à partir de données d'enquête de l'Insee, dans l'industrie mais également dans les services et le bâtiment. Nous examinons deux stratégies de réduction de l'information, l'une fondée sur l'algorithme de sélection automatique GETS par blocs de Hendry et Krolzig (2005), l'autre sur la méthode de combinaison popularisée par Stock et Watson (2004). Ces deux méthodes sont évaluées hors échantillon au travers de régressions récursives et roulantes. Nous montrons la supériorité des étalonnages construits avec GETS et l'intérêt de considérer d'autres enquêtes que celle dans l'industrie dans les stratégies de modélisation et de prévision.

This paper develops new bridge models to forecast the quarterly GDP growth in France in the short run. We only use data from business survey in the French industry, services and construction. Two alternative methods are considered. The first one relies on the GETS algorithm applied to blocks of randomly selected variables (Hendry and Krolzig, 2005) and the other one on the combination method popularized by Stock and Watson (2004). In-sample and out-of-sample assessments of the two methods are conducted using recursive and rolling regressions. We show that the forecast based on an automatic regression model selection performs better and that survey data including the ones in services and construction can be useful for short-term GDP forecast.

Fouquau J., Bessec M. (2008), The Non-Linear Link between Electricity Consumption and Temperature in Europe : A Threshold Panel Approach, Energy Economics, 30, 5, p. 2705-2721

This paper investigates the relationship between electricity demand and temperature in the European Union. We address this issue by means of a panel threshold regression model on 15 European countries over the last two decades. Our results confirm the non-linearity of the link between electricity consumption and temperature found in more limited geographical areas in previous studies. By distinguishing between North and South countries, we also find that this non-linear pattern is more pronounced in the warm countries. Finally, rolling regressions show that the sensitivity of electricity consumption to temperature in summer has increased in the recent period.

Bessec M. (2005), Are Economists Chartists or Fundamentalists? A Survey of Eighty French Academics, Economie et Prévision, 169-171, p. 239-249

Les enquêtes auprès des cambistes sur leurs anticipations de change se sont multipliées depuis une dizaine d'années. En revanche, il n'existe pas d'étude sur la vision universitaire du fonctionnement du marché des changes. Cet article vise à combler cette lacune. Nous avons réalisé en novembre 2002 un sondage au sein de plusieurs universités françaises. 80 chercheurs ont répondu à nos questions. Ils indiquent ne pas croire en une influence des variables fondamentales à court terme. En particulier, ils rejettent l'intérêt pratique de la PPA pour prédire les mouvements des cours. En revanche, les modèles de fondamentaux retrouveraient leur utilité à moyen et surtout à long terme. La confrontation de ces résultats à ceux d'une enquête réalisée sur le marché des changes américain démontre que ce point de vue est relativement peu éloigné de celui des professionnels du marché.

Surveys of market participants are now widely used in the exchange-rate literature. However, there is no study of academics'views on exchange-rate dynamics. Our paper aims to fill this gap. We conducted a survey of 80 economists in several French universities in November 2002. Most respondents do not perceive economic fundamentals as important determinants of exchange rates at short and medium horizons. In particular, PPP is not regarded as a useful concept for predicting exchange-rate movements. The consistency between these beliefs and those of foreign-exchange traders disproves conventional wisdom, which sees a wide gap between the academic view and market traders' everyday practices.

Bouabdallah O., Bessec M. (2005), What causes the forecasting failure of Markov-switching models ? A Monte Carlo study, Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, 9, 2, p. article 6

This paper explores the forecasting abilities of Markov-Switching models. Although MS models generally display a superior in-sample fit relative to linear models, the gain in prediction remains small. We confirm this result using simulated data for a wide range of specifications. In order to explain this poor performance, we use a forecasting error decomposition. We identify four components and derive their analytical expressions in different MS specifications. The relative contribution of each source is assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the main source of error is due to the misclassification of future regimes.

Augeraud-Veron E., D'Albis H., Bessec M. (2004), Démographie et fluctuations économiques, Revue économique, 55, 3, p. 429-437

Cet article montre qu'un modèle néo-classique, aux hypothèses habituelles mais pourvu d'une structure par âge de la population explicite, converge vers son sentier de croissance équilibré avec des oscillations amorties. Il reproduit ainsi un processus de retour à la moyenne avec fluctuations de court terme que l'on observe dans les séries de produit intérieur brut de la plupart des pays de l'ocde.

This paper shows that a neoclassical model with standard assumptions but endowed with an explicit age structure of the population, converges to its balanced growth path with damped oscillations. It therefore reproduces a trend-reverting process with short run fluctuations that is displayed by the gross domestic product time series of most oecd countries.

Bessec M. (2003), Mean-reversion vs. adjustment to PPP: the two regimes of exchange rate dynamics under the EMS, 1979-1998, Economic Modelling, 20, 1, p. 141–164

This paper examines jointly the empirical relevance of the mean-reversion and the PPP hypotheses in the exchange rate dynamics under the EMS. Given the non-stationarity and the non-linearities characterizing the foreign exchange rate dynamics, this question is studied using a MS-ECM model: it allows a discontinuous adjustment towards the cointegration relationship. We find that the European exchange rates of the ERM members display mean-reversion towards the central parity in the credible regime, whereas they adjust to the PPP during the volatile period. The first mechanism is due to the stabilizing effect of a credible target-zone, while the second one can be explained by the realignments made in accordance with the underlying inflation rates.

Robineau F-M., Bessec M. (2003), Comportements chartistes et fondamentalistes : Coexistence ou domination alternative sur le marché des changes ?, Revue Economique, 54, 6, p. 1213-38

Cet article étudie l'interaction entre agents chartistes et fondamentalistes sur le marché des changes. A cette fin, nous étendons le modèle à changements de régimes markoviens de Vigfusson afin de pouvoir en tester les implications. La stratégie de tests obtenue est ensuite appliquée aux taux de change canadien, japonais et allemand. Nos résultats valident les conclusions de Vigfusson. Les périodes calmes sont associées à l'action des agents chartistes, tandis que les périodes de volatilité accrue des changes correspondent à l'activité ré-équilibrante des agents fondamentalistes.

This paper examines the role of chartists and fundamentalists in the foreign exchange market. This question is studied using the Markov-Switching model of Vigfusson that we extend to test for the alternative domination of each group. The tests are applied to the Canadian, Japanese and German-US exchange rates. The results support Vigfusson's findings. Chartists dominate foreign exchange market during the tranquil phases, whereas fundamentalists drag back the exchange rates to its equilibrium value during the more turbulent periods.

Chapitres d'ouvrage

Bessec M., Méritet S. (2007), The causality link between energy prices, technology and energy intensity, in Bourbonnais R., Keppler J., Girod J. (eds), The econometrics of energy systems, Basingstoke, England, Palgrave, p. 121-145

Communications

Bessec M. (2015), Revisiting the transitional dynamics of business-cycle phases with mixed frequency data, AFSE 2015 64th Congress, Rennes, France

This paper introduces a Markov-Switching model where transition probabilities depend on higher frequency indicators and their lags, through polynomial weighting schemes. The MSV-MIDAS model is estimated via maximum likel ihood methods. The estimation relies on a slightly modified version of Hamilton's recursive filter. We use Monte Carlo simulations to assess the robustness of the estimation procedure and related test-statistics. The results show that ML provides accurate estimates, but they suggest some caution in the tests on the parameters involved in the transition probabilities. We apply this new model to the detection and forecast of business cycle turning points. We properly detect recessions in United States and United Kingdom by exploiting the link between GDP growth and higher frequency variables from financial and energy markets. Spread term is a particularly useful indicator to predict recessions in the United States, while stock returns have the strongest explanatory power around British turning points.

Fouquau J., Bessec M., Méritet S. (2014), Forecasting electricity spot prices using time-series models with a double temporal segmentation, 2nd International Symposium on Energy and Finance Issues - (ISEFI-2014), Paris, France

The French wholesale market is set to expand in the next few years under European pressure and national decisions. In this paper, we assess the forecasting ability of several classes of time series models for electricity wholesale spot prices at a day-ahead horizon in France. Electricity spot prices display a strong seasonal pattern, particularly in France given the high share of electric heating in housing during winter time. To deal with this pattern, we implement a double temporal segmentation of the data. For each trading period and season, we use a large number of specifications based on market fundamentals: linear regressions, markov-switching models, threshold models with a smooth transition. Non-linear models designed to capture the sudden and fast-reverting spikes in the price dynamics yield more accurate forecasts. Modeling each season independently also leads to better results. Finally, pooling forecasts gives more reliable results. Individual models are generally superior but their performance is more unstable across hours and seasons.

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