Curriculum vitae

Chort Isabelle

Maître de conférences

isabelle.chortping@dauphinepong.fr
Tel : 4741
Bureau : P111
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Publications

Articles

Chort I., Senne J-N. (2015), Selection into Migration within a Household Model: Evidence from Senegal, World Bank Economic Review, 29, 1, p. S247-S256

This paper intends to fill the gap between individual selection models and household approaches to migration. It presents a theoretical model to account for household-based migration decisions and derives its implications on migrant selection within the household. The predictions are tested on unique multi-sited and matched samples of Senegalese migrants and their origin household, using a three-step estimation procedure based on an extension of the Roy-Dahl model of mobility and earnings. Our results suggest that expected remittances, along with earnings differentials between host and home countries, play a major role in shaping intra-household selection patterns.

Chort I. (2014), Mexican Migrants to the US: What Do Unrealized Migration Intentions Tell Us About Gender Inequalities?, World Development, 59, p. 535-552

This paper exploits unrealized intentions to migrate to highlight mobility constraints. I analyze the discrepancies between Mexicans' intention to migrate and their subsequent migration behavior using the two waves of the Mexican Family Life Survey panel (2002 and 2005-06). I first provide evidence that intentions contain behavioral information. Controlling for various shocks likely to affect the migration decision, I find that women's probability to carry out their migration plans is systematically lower than men's. Different interpretations are investigated, but empirical evidence suggests that women's unrealized migration plans are due to female-specific costs and constraints.

Chort I., De Vreyer P., Marazyan K. (2014), Apprenticeship in Senegal, determinants and trajectories, Autrepart, 71, p. 175-193

De nombreux travaux ont souligné l'importance de l'âge d'entrée dans la vie active non seulement sur les revenus futurs, mais aussi sur la décohabitation, le statut matrimonial et social. L'entrée des jeunes hommes sénégalais sur le marché du travail passe pour nombre d'entre eux par l'apprentissage, formation professionnelle très répandue au Sénégal : l'entrée plus précoce des apprentis sur le marché du travail se fait-elle au prix d'une relégation dans un statut d'emploi subalterne ?À partir des données de l'enquête Pauvreté et structure familiale menée auprès de 1 785 ménages sénégalais en 2006, nous estimons des modèles de durée à risques concurrents - entrée sur le marché du travail comme apprenti plutôt qu'entrée sous un autre statut. Nous mettons ainsi en évidence les déterminants spécifiques de l'entrée en apprentissage. La comparaison des cohortes récentes et plus anciennes montre que si l'entrée en apprentissage est plus répandue parmi les plus jeunes, les conditions d'entrée sur le marché du travail en tant qu'apprenti ont peu évolué au cours du temps. Enfin, la comparaison des trajectoires des anciens apprentis et des non-apprentis suggère que l'entrée en apprentissage joue sur l'insertion sociale et professionnelle ultérieure.

The economic literature emphasizes the impact of age at labour market entry on future earnings as well as on the decision to leave the parent's house and on the marital and social status. Many young Senegalese men enter the labour market as apprentices: does the early entry into the labour market entail a relegation to a subordinate employment status?Using data from the Poverty and Family Structure (PSF) survey conducted with 1,785 Senegalese households in 2006, we estimate competing risks models. We emphasize the determinants of labour market entry as an apprentice rather than with another status. By comparing different cohorts, we show that apprenticeship is more widespread for the youngest generations, while the determinants of apprenticeship have not changed. The comparison of marital status and careers of former apprentices suggest that their status when entering into the labour market affects their occupational and social integration.

Dia H., Chort I. (2013), L'argent des migrations, Autrepart, 4-5, 67-68, p. 298

L'argent des migrations est abordé ici en prenant en compte l'universalité du phénomène migratoire. Au-delà des débats usuels et à contre-pied des approches dominantes, ce volume s'attache à restituer l'émergence et le développement de la thématique de l'argent des migrations avant de se pencher sur des flux monétaires « non standards », sur de nouveaux circuits et sur des créneaux inédits de circulation de nouvelles dynamiques qui contribuent à recomposer les rapports entre les individus et les groupes au sein de sociétés soumises à des transformations rapides et profondes. Innovant et couvrant quatre continents, de l'Amérique à l'Asie en passant par l'Afrique et l'Europe, ce numéro d'Autrepart mobilise différentes disciplines de sciences sociales pour renouveler les études sur l'argent des migrations.

Chort I., Dia H. (2013), L'argent des migrations : les finances individuelles sous l'objectif des sciences sociales, Autrepart, 4-5, 67-68, p. 3-12

Chort I. (2012), Réseaux migratoires sénégalais, Statéco, 107, p. 55-74

Cet article aborde la question de l'importance et du rôle des réseaux migratoires au Sénégal à partir de nouvelles données issues d'une enquête ménage, représentative au niveau national, dont la première vague a été menée en 2006-2007. Utilisant un échantillon de 1707 ménages, j'étudie comment différents réseaux migratoires influent sur la participation des individus et des ménages à la migration interne et internationale. Les résultats de modèles de régression logit et logitmultivarié suggèrent que les réseaux familiaux jouent un rôle plus important que les réseaux communautaires ou villageois. Les premiers semblent également caractérisés par une spécialisation géographique plus marquée entre destinations africaines et européennes. En outre, l'existence de réseaux, familiaux ou communautaires semble avoir un impact différent selon le sexe des individus, la richesse ou encore la taille des ménages d'origine. Bien que différentes interprétations soient possibles et discutée, les résultats présentés corroborent l'hypothèse d'effets de réseaux.

Chort I., Senne J-N., Gubert F. (2012), Migrant networks as a basis for social control: Remittance incentives among Senegalese in France and Italy, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 42, 5, p. 858-874

The economic literature provides much evidence of the positive impact of social capital on migrants' economic outcomes, in particular through assistance upon arrival and insurance in times of hardship. Yet, although much less documented, migrant networks may well have a great influence on remittances to their home country and particularly to their origin households. Given all the services provided by the network, the fear of being ostracized by network members and being left with no support could provide incentives for migrants to commit to prevailing redistribution norms. In this perspective, remittances may be a fee that migrants pay to get access to network services. In this paper, we thus analyze to what extent migrant networks in the destination country influence the degree to which migrants meet the claims of those left behind. We first review existing models of remitting behavior and investigate how the potential role of networks could affect their main predictions. We then provide a simple illustrative theoretical framework to account for the double impact networks may have on remitting behavior, through the provision of services to migrants and the spread of information flows between home and host countries. We finally use an original dataset of 602 Senegalese migrants residing in France and Italy to explore the main predictions of our model.

Lambert S., Chort I. (2010), Remises migratoires et redistributivité, Regards croisés sur l'économie, 2, 8, p. 128-137

Communications

Boltz M., Chort I. (2015), The Risk of Polygamy and Wives' Saving Behaviour, Annual International Conference 2015 of the Research Group on Development Economics of the German Economic Association : "Development Economics and Policy", Kiel, GERMANY

In a polygamous society, all monogamous women are virtually at risk of polygamy. However,both the anthropological and economic literature are silent on the potential impact of therisk of polygamy on economic decisions of monogamous wives. We explore this issue forSenegal using individual panel data. We rst estimate a Cox model for the probability oftransition to polygamy. Second, we estimate the impact of the predicted risk of polygamyon monogamous wives' savings. We nd a positive impact of the risk of polygamy on femalesavings entrusted to formal or informal institutions, consistent with self-insurance strategies.

Senne J-N., Chort I. (2012), Intra-household Selection into Migration : Evidence from a Matched Sample of Migrants and Origin Households in Senegal, MAFE Conference, Paris, France

Migrant's selection issues are tackled by a great number of articles since the founder paper by Borjas (1987), which applies to international migration the Roy model of self-selection. However, most migration models usually regard location choices as an individual income-maximizing strategy and do not consider the col- lective dimension of the decision to migrate. In this paper, we therefore extend the Roy model to account for a household model of migration and derive its implications on migrant's selection. Since when choosing the one among its members who is to migrate the household maximizes its earnings including further remittances, migrant selection in this case may di er from what is expected from an individual decision model. We de facto speci cally tackle the so far under-explored issue of intra-household selection into migration and nally aim at determining which component of the household utility - earnings, remittances or non-monetary factors - mostly drives location choices. We provide empirical evidence from a unique matched sample of 900 Senegalese migrants in three destination countries - France, Italy and Mauritania - and their origin households in Senegal.

Chort I. (2012), New insights into the selection process of Mexican migrants. What can we learn from discrepancies between intentions to migrate and actual moves to the U.S.?, 60ème congrés de l'AFSE, Nanterre, France

This paper aims at providing a better understanding of the selection process in the migration decision by studying discrepancies between migration intentions and actual moves. Both are analyzed in the theoretical framework of the Roy model. Empirical analysis is based on Mexico-U.S. migration data from the Mexican Family Life Survey. Probit regressions for intentions to migrate and actual migrations show that most of the positive selection of migrants relative to education seems to occur at the actual migration stage. Consistently with the theory, variables proxying for migration costs, though uncorrelated with emigration intentions, seem to negatively a ect actual migration, especially migration abroad. At last, women seem to be more constrained than men on the international migration market.

Chort I. (2012), New insights into the selection process of Mexican migrants. What can we learn from discrepancies between intentions to migrate and actual moves to the U.S.?, 26th Annual Conference of the European Society for Population Economics, Bern, Suisse

Comparing intentions to migrate and actual migration of Mexicans, I intend to assess the impact of unexpected shocks and misevaluated costs on the materialization of migration plans. I show that both sets of reasons may explain discrepancies between intentions and subsequent actions without denying the rationality of intentions by resorting to the theoretical framework of the Roy model. I use intention and migration data from the Mexican Family Life Survey, together with precipitations monthly series, hurricane and crime data to represent different sets of shocks. Correlations between intentions and migration on the one hand, and between intentions and individual labor market characteristics show that intentions are not devoid of informational content. Then, modelling intentions and migration with a bivariate probit, I find that shocks, and in particular rainfall and hurricanes, affect the probability to migrate conditional on initial intentions. The key finding is nonetheless the much lower propensity for women to migrate abroad conditional on intentions, which suggests that women incur specic costs or constraints misestimated at the intention stage. Alternative explanations, such as gendered preferences are discussed, but convergent empirical evidence suggest that women are more constrained than men on the international migration market. Moreover the data suggest that migrants are positively selected with respect to their unobserved characteristics whereas those with intention to migrate abroad are negatively selected. The shift in selection between the two stages of the migration process may be due to the cost reducing effect of individuals' unobserved characteristics that explain their higher local wages.

Chort I. (2010), Migrant's Networks as a Basis for Social Control: Remittances Obligations and Strategic Behaviour among Senegalese in France, First TEMPO Conference on International Migration, Dublin, IRELAND

Documents de travail

Chort I., de la Rupelle M. (2015), Determinants of Mexico-US outwards and return migration flows: A state-level panel data analysis, DIAL Document de travail, Paris, Université Paris-Dauphine, 46

Nous étudions dans cet article les déterminants des tendances régionales des flux migratoires entre leMexique et les Etats-Unis. A côté des déterminants économiques traditionnels des migrations, nousexplorons le rôle de facteurs environnementaux et sociaux sur les caractéristiques et l'évolution desflux migratoires entre états. Nous estimons un modèle de gravité micro-fondé, à partir de données depanel sur les flux migratoires entrants et de retour entre états mexicains et états-uniens sur la période1995-2012. Nous exploitons la dimension temporelle et dyadique de nos données pour contrôler pourles caractéristiques des états de destination susceptibles d'affecter les flux migratoires, notamment leschangements de politiques migratoires. Nos résultats suggèrent que les facteurs sociaux et climatiquescontribuent à expliquer les tendances régionales observées.

In this paper, we investigate the determinants of the regional patterns of Mexico-US migration flows.Along with traditional economic determinants, we examine the role played by environmental factorsand violence in Mexico in determining migration patterns and their evolutions. We estimate a microgroundedgravity model of migration using a panel dataset of state-to-state emigration and returnmigration flows between Mexico and the US for the period 1995-2012. We exploit the time anddyadic dimension of the data to control for time-invariant and time-variant characteristics ofdestination states, including migration policies. Our results suggest that along with the traditionaleconomic determinants of migration, climatic and social factors contribute to shaping regionalmigration patterns.

Senne J-N., Chort I. (2013), Intra-household Selection into Migration: Evidence from a Matched Sample of Migrants and Origin Households in Senegal, DIAL Document de travail, Paris, IRD, 56

Ce papier, en se situant à l'interface des modèles de sélection individuelle et des approches collectives de la migration, apporte un éclairage nouveau sur la question centrale de la sélection des individus dans la migration. Un modèle théorique est tout d'abord proposé pour décrire le processus de décision de migration au niveau du ménage d'origine et, par là même, appréhender la complexité de la sélection du migrant lorsque la migration est envisagée comme une stratégie familiale. Le modèle fait l'hypothèse que le choix du membre du ménage en migration résulte de la maximisation de l'utilité collective du ménage d'origine, qui dépend non seulement des revenus mais aussi des transferts attendus de la part du migrant sélectionné. Dans ce cas, la sélection dans la migration peut différer de celle qui aurait prévalue dans le cadre d'un modèle de décision purement individuel. Ainsi, ce chapitre s'attaque à une problématique qui reste totalement inexplorée dans la littérature, à savoir la sélection intra-ménage dans la migration, et a pour ambition d'identifier les déterminants clés des choix de localisation des différents membres du ménage. Dans le prolongement du modèle de Roy, une procédure d'estimation novatrice est ensuite suggérée, permettant de tester les prédictions théoriques précédentes. L'analyse empirique se fonde sur des données uniques, issues du projet MIDDAS, et constituées d'un échantillon de migrants sénégalais dans trois pays de destinations (France, Italie et Mauritanie) appariés avec les non-migrants de leur ménage d'origine. Les résultats suggèrent que les différentiels de revenus, mais également les transferts attendus, jouent un rôle prépondérant dans la sélection du migrant au sein de son ménage d'origine, se posant ainsi en contraste avec les prédictions classiques des modèles de sélection individuels.

This paper fills the gap between individual selection models and collective approaches of migration. We build a theoretical model in order to account for household-based migration decisions and derive its implications on migrant selection. Assuming that the origin household maximizes a collective utility including earnings but also further remittances when choosing the one among its members who is to migrate, migrant selection in this case may differ from what is predicted by a pure individual decision model. Therefore, we specifically tackle the so far under-explored issue of intra-household selection into migration in order to identify what are the key determinants of household members' location choices. We derive our estimation procedure from an extension of the Roy-Dahl model and provide empirical evidence using a unique matched sample of 926 Senegalese migrants in three destination countries - France, Italy and Mauritania - and their origin household in Senegal. Our results show that expected remittances, along with earnings differentials, play a major role in shaping intra-household selection patterns, which stands in striking contrast with usual predictions from individual self-selection models.

Chort I. (2013), Migrant network and immigrants' occupational mismatch, DIAL Document de travail, Paris, IRD, 25

Ce papier présente de nouveaux indicateurs d'inadéquation professionnelle verticale et horizontale, définis à partir du décalage entre le niveau de qualifications associé au métier des individus et à leur emploi. Sur la base de ces définitions, ce papier est le premier à tester directement l'impact causal des réseaux sur l'inadéquation professionnelle, dans le cas particulier des immigrants. Les données utilisées sont des données d'enquêtes originales, collectées auprès de 1200 migrants sénégalais dans quatre pays de destination. Je traite les problèmes d'endogénéité potentiels en utilisant les caractéristiques ethniques et religieuses des migrants pour instrumenter le recours à l'aide du réseau pour trouver un emploi.

This paper defines new measures of horizontal and vertical mismatch based on the discrepancies between the skill content of occupations in which individuals have a self-assessed productive advantage and that of their actual job. Based on these definitions, this paper provides the first direct empirical test of the causal impact of networks on mismatch, in the particular case of immigrants. The data used are original survey data collected among 1,200 Senegalese migrants in four host countries. Potential endogeneity issues are dealt with by using migrants' ethnic and religious characteristics to instrument for network help to find a job. Analyses show that migrants who obtained their job through migrant networks have a higher probability of horizontal mismatch. However, they have a lower probability of negative mismatch and thus seem to be protected from a loss in occupational status.

Senne J-N., Chort I. (2013), Intra-household Selection into Migration: Evidence from a Matched Sample of Migrants and Origin Households in Senegal, DIAL Document de travail, Paris, Université Paris-Dauphine, 56

Ce papier, en se situant à l'interface des modèles de sélection individuelle et des approches collectivesde la migration, apporte un éclairage nouveau sur la question centrale de la sélection des individusdans la migration. Un modèle théorique est tout d'abord proposé pour décrire le processus de décisionde migration au niveau du ménage d'origine et, par là même, appréhender la complexité de la sélectiondu migrant lorsque la migration est envisagée comme une stratégie familiale. Le modèle fait l'hypothèse que le choix du membre du ménage en migration résulte de la maximisation de l'utilité collective du ménage d'origine, qui dépend non seulement des revenus mais aussi des transferts attendus de la part du migrant sélectionné. Dans ce cas, la sélection dans la migration peut différer decelle qui aurait prévalue dans le cadre d'un modèle de décision purement individuel. Ainsi, ce chapitre s'attaque à une problématique qui reste totalement inexplorée dans la littérature, à savoir la sélection intra-ménage dans la migration, et a pour ambition d'identifier les déterminants clés des choix delocalisation des différents membres du ménage. Dans le prolongement du modèle de Roy, une procédure d'estimation novatrice est ensuite suggérée, permettant de tester les prédictions théoriques précédentes. L'analyse empirique se fonde sur des données uniques, issues du projet MIDDAS, etconstituées d'un échantillon de migrants sénégalais dans trois pays de destinations (France, Italie etMauritanie) appariés avec les non-migrants de leur ménage d'origine. Les résultats suggèrent que les différentiels de revenus, mais également les transferts attendus, jouent un rôle prépondérant dans lasélection du migrant au sein de son ménage d'origine, se posant ainsi en contraste avec les prédictionsclassiques des modèles de sélection individuels.

This paper fills the gap between individual selection models and collective approaches of migration.We build a theoretical model in order to account for household-based migration decisions and derive its implications on migrant selection. Assuming that the origin household maximizes a collective utility including earnings but also further remittances when choosing the one among its members who is to migrate, migrant selection in this case may differ from what is predicted by a pure individualdecision model. Therefore, we specifically tackle the so far under-explored issue of intra-household selection into migration in order to identify what are the key determinants of household members's location choices. We derive our estimation procedure from an extension of the Roy-Dahl model and provide empirical evidence using a unique matched sample of 926 Senegalese migrants in three destination countries - France, Italy and Mauritania - and their origin household in Senegal. Our results show that expected remittances, along with earnings differentials, play a major role in shapingintra-household selection patterns, which stands in striking contrast with usual predictions from individual self-selection models.

Chort I. (2012), Migration Networks in Senegal,, Paris, Université Paris-Dauphine, 45

This paper investigates the importance and role of migration networks in Senegal using a new nationally representative survey conducted in 2006-2007. Using a sample of 1707 Senegalese households I explore potentially differential effects of networks on international migration depending on their characteristics in terms of composition and destination. Results from logit and multinomial logit regressions show that household networks seem to be destination-specific and have a greater positive influence on migration than community networks. Networks also seem to have heterogeneous effects on migration depending on gender, household wealth or size which is consistent with previous findings in the literatureand backs up a networks effects story.

Chort I. (2011), Migration Networks in Senegal, PSE Working Papers, Paris, Université Paris-Dauphine, 45

This paper investigates the importance and role of migration networks in Senegal usinga new nationally representative survey conducted in 2006-2007. Using a sample of 1707Senegalese households I explore potentially di erential e ects of networks on internationalmigration depending on their characteristics in terms of composition and destination. Resultsfrom logit and multinomial logit regressions show that household networks seem tobe destination-speci c and have a greater positive inuence on migration than communitynetworks. Networks also seem to have heterogeneous e ects on migration depending ongender, household wealth or size which is consistent with previous ndings in the literatureand backs up a networks e ects story.

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