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Caroli Eve

Professeur des universités
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Eve Caroli is a professor of Economics at University Paris Dauphine. She is a researcher at LEDa-LEGOS and at the Paris School of Economics and a research fellow at CEPREMAP, Paris. Her research interests focus on human resource management and health at work. She is also interested in low-wage work and is a member of the French Low-Pay Commission. She coordinated the French part of the Russell Sage Foundation project on Low wage work in Europe (2004-2008). Prior to her position at University Paris Dauphine, she has been a professor at University Paris-Ouest Nanterre and before a researcher at INRA-LEA in Paris and a visiting lecturer at Uuniversity College London. She obtained her PhD from Sciences Po, Paris and graduated from University Paris VII and Sciences Po.



Caroli E., Brunello G., Bassanini A., Caroli E. (2017), Not in my Community: Social Pressure and the Geography of Dismissals, Journal of Labor Economics, 35, 2

We investigate the impact of local social pressure on firms' firing decisions. Using linked employer-employee data, we show that secondary establishments located further away from headquarters have higher dismissal rates than those located closer. The effect of distance on dismissals is stronger, the greater the visibility of the firm in the local community of its headquarters and the larger the degree of selfishness of that community. We show that these findings can be explained by the social pressure exerted by the communities where firms' headquarters are located, which induces CEOs to refrain from dismissing at short distance from their headquarters.

Caroli E., Weber-Baghdiguian L. (2016), Self-Reported Health and Gender: the Role of Social Norms, Social Science & Medicine, 153, p. 220-229

The role of social norms in accounting for the different attitudes of men and women with respect to health is still an open issue. In this research, we investigate the role of social norms associated with specific gender environments in the workplace in accounting for differences in health-reporting behaviours across men and women. Using the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we build a database containing 30,124 observations. We first replicate the standard result that women report worse health than men, whatever the health outcome we consider. We then proxy social norms by the gender structure of the workplace environment and study how the latter affects self-reported health for men and women separately. Our findings indicate that individuals in workplaces where women are a majority tend to report worse health than individuals employed in male-dominated work environments, be they men or women. These results are robust to controlling for a large array of working condition indicators, which allows us to rule out that the poorer health status reported by individuals working in female-dominated environments could be due to worse job quality. This evidence suggests that social norms associated with specific gender environments play an important role in explaining differences in health-reporting behaviours across gender, at least in the workplace.

Caroli E., Godard M. (2016), Does job insecurity deteriorate health?, Health Economics, 25, 2, p. 131–147

This paper estimates the causal effect of perceived job insecurity - i.e. the fear of involuntary job loss - on health in a sample of men from 22 European countries. We rely on an original instrumental variable approach based on the idea that workers perceive greater job security in countries where employment is strongly protected by the law, and relatively more so if employed in industries where employment protection legislation is more binding, i.e. in industries with a higher natural rate of dismissals. Using cross-country data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we show that when the potential endogeneity of job insecurity is not accounted for, the latter appears to deteriorate almost all health outcomes. When tackling the endogeneity issue by estimating an IV model and dealing with potential weak-instrument issues, the health-damaging effect of job insecurity is confirmed for a limited subgroup of health outcomes, namely suffering from headaches or eyestrain and skin problems. As for other health variables, the impact of job insecurity appears to be insignificant at conventional levels.

Bassanini A., Caroli E. (2015), Is Work Bad for Health? The Role of Constraint versus Choice, Annals of Economics and Statistics, 119-120, p. 13-37

This paper reviews the literature on the impact of work on health. We consider work along two dimensions: (i) the intensive margin, i.e. how many hours an individual works when employed and (ii) the extensive margin, i.e. whether an individual is in employment or not. We show that most of the evidence on the negative health impact of work found in the literature is based on situations in which workers have essentially no control (no choice) over the amount of work they provide. In essence, what is detrimental to health is not so much work per se as much as the gap which may exist between the actual and the desired amount of work, both at the intensive and extensive margins.

Blasco S., Messe P-J., Caroli E., Lindeboom M. (2015), Introduction to the Special issue on Health and Labour Economics, Annals of Economics and Statistics, 119-120, p. 9-11

Behaghel L., Caroli E., Roger M. (2014), Age Biased Technical and Organisational Change, Training and Employment Prospects of Older Workers, Economica, 81, 322, p. 368-389

We analyse the role of training in mitigating the negative impact of technical and organizational changes on the employment prospects of older workers. Using a panel of French firms in the late 1990s, we first estimate wage bill share equations for different age groups. Consistently with what is found in the literature, we find that adopting new technologies and innovative work practices negatively affects the wage bill share of older workers. In contrast, training older workers more than average increases their share in the wage bill in the next period. So, training contributes to offset the negative impact of ICT and innovative work practices. However, it does not reduce the age bias associated with these innovative devices : the interaction terms between training and ICT/innovative work practices are either insignificant or negative. As a second step, we estimate the impact of ICT, innovative work practices and training on employment flows by age group in the next period. We get similar results to those obtained with wage bill shares. Overall, training appears to have a positive impact on the employability of older workers, but it offers limited prospects to dampen the age bias associated with new technologies and innovative work practices.

Rebérioux A., Caroli E., Breda T., Bassanini A. (2013), Working in family firms : less paid but more secure ? Evidence from French matched employer-employee data, Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 66, 2, p. 433-466

Nous étudions les systèmes de rémunérations en vigueur dans les entreprises familiales. Sur la base de données employeurs-salariés appariées portant sur un échantillon d'établissements français dans les années 2000, nous montrons dans un premier temps que les entreprises familiales versent des salaires plus faibles que les entreprises non familiales. Cet écart de salaires est robuste à l'introduction d'une série de contrôles portant sur les caractéristiques des établissements et des salariés. De plus, il n'apparaît pas dû à l'écart de productivité existant entre entreprises familiales et non familiales, ni à une éventuelle hétérogénéité inobservée entre établissements ou salariés. Par ailleurs, l'écart de salaires entre entreprises familiales et non familiales est relativement homogène entre hommes et femmes et entre salariés ayant des niveaux d'éducation différents. En revanche, il est plus important pour les CSP inférieures (ouvriers et employés) que pour les CSP supérieures (techniciens, contremaîtres et cadres) pour lesquelles il n'est par ailleurs pas significatif. Dans un second temps, nous nous interrogeons sur les raisons pour lesquelles les salariés restent dans les entreprises familiales si les salaires y sont plus faibles. Nous montrons que la sécurité de l'emploi y est plus élevée. Le taux de licenciement apparaît ainsi plus faible dans les entreprises familiales que dans les non familiales. Nous montrons également que les entreprises familiales ont moins recours aux licenciements et plus aux réductions d'emploi quand elles font face à un choc négatif sur leur niveau d'emploi. Ces résultats sont confirmés par ceux que l'on obtient sur données subjectives : le risque de licenciement perçu par les salariés est plus faible dans les entreprises familiales que dans les non familiales. Nous conjecturons que nos résultats sont compatibles avec deux types d'explications : un modèle de différences compensatrices de salaires et un modèle dans lequel les salariés s'auto-sélectionnent dans les entreprises familiales ou non sur la base de leurs préférences.

We study the compensation package offered by family firms. Using matched employer-employee data for a sample of French establishments in the 2000s, we first show that family firms pay on average lower wages to their workers. This family/non-family wage gap is robust to controlling for several establishment and individual characteristics and does not appear to be due either to the differential of productivity between family and non-family firms or to unobserved establishment and individual heterogeneity. Moreover, it is relatively homogeneous across workers with different gender, educational attainment and age. By contrast, the family/non-family wage gap is found to be larger for clerks and blue-collar workers than for managers, supervisors and technicians, for whom we find no significant wage gap. As a second step, we investigate why workers stay in family firms while being paid less. We show that these firms offer greater job security. We find evidence that the rate of dismissal is lower in family than in non-family firms. We also show that family firms rely less on dismissals and more on hiring reductions when they downsize. These results are confirmed by subjective data : the perceived risk of dismissal is significantly lower in family firms than in non-family ones. We speculate that our results can be explained either by a compensating wage differential story or by a model in which workers sort in different firms according to their preferences.

Behaghel L., Caroli E., Walkowiak E. (2012), Information and communication technologies and skill upgrading: the role of internal vs external labour markets, Oxford economic papers, 64, 3, p. 490-517

Following the adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT), firms may react to increasing skill requirements either by training or hiring the new skills, or a combination of the two.Using matched datasets with about 1,000 French plants, we assess the relative importance of these external and internal labour market strategies. We show that skill upgrading following technological and organisational changes takes place mostly through internal labour markets adjustments. Consistently with the results in the literature, we find that the intensive use of ICT is associated with an upward shift in the occupational structure within firms. We show that about one third of the upgrading of the occupational structure is due to hiring and firing workers from and to the external labour market, whereas two-thirds are due to promotions. Moreover, we find no compelling evidence of external labour market strategies based on "excess turnover". In contrast, French firms heavily rely on training in order to upgrade the skill level of their workforce. When looking at potential heterogeneity across firms in skill upgrading strategies, we find that all firms rely much more on promotions than on external movements in order to shift their occupational structure upward. In contrast, different training patterns are found across sectors : the use of ICT is strongly correlated with training for all occupational groups in manufacturing sectors, whereas this is not the case in services. This difference is robust to controlling for other sources of heterogeneity and may be explained by the fact that labour turnover is much higher in services than in manufacturing.

Askenazy P., Caroli E. (2010), Innovative Work Practices, Information Technologies, and Working Conditions : Evidence for France, Industrial Relations, 49, 4, p. 544-565

We investigate the impact of new work practices and information and communication technologies (ICT) on working conditions in France. We use a unique French dataset providing information on individual workers for the year 1998. New work practices include the use of quality norms, job rotation, collective discussions on work organization, and work time flexibility. Working conditions are captured by occupational injuries as well as indicators of mental strain. We find that individuals working under the new practices face greater mental strain than individuals who do not. They also face a higher probability of work injuries, at least for benign ones. In contrast, our results suggest that ICT contribute to make the workplace more cooperative and to reduce occupational risks and injuries.

Caroli E., Gautié J., James S., Lamanthe A., Lloyd C. (2010), Delivering Flexibility : Contrasting Patterns in the French and the UK Food Processing Industry, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 48, 2, p. 284-309

This article provides a comparative analysis of changes in numerical and functional labour flexibility in the French and the UK food processing industry.Based upon case study data, it explores the interaction between competitivepressures and institutional and regulatory structures and their impact on work-place practices. The findings indicate that, faced with a similar competitiveenvironment, firms in both countries have sought to increase labour flexibility.However, the predominant forms of flexibility vary across the two countries,partly reflecting the characteristics of national labour market institutions.Numerical flexibility dominates in the UK, with high levels of paid overtime and temporary agency work. In contrast, French workplaces rely more on internalfunctional flexibility while also achieving numerical flexibility through seasonalvariations in work schedules and a wide range of short-term employment contracts.

Behaghel L., Caroli E., Roger M. (2010), Départ des travailleurs âgés, formation continue et changements technologiques et organisationnels, Travail et emploi, 1, 121, p. 7-20

Nous analysons dans quelle mesure la formation peut atténuer les effets défavorables, pour l'emploi des seniors, des changements technologiques et organisationnels. À partir d'un panel d'entreprises françaises suivies sur la seconde moitié des années 1990, nous confirmons le caractère biaisé à l'encontre des salariés âgés des nouvelles technologies et de certaines nouvelles formes d'organisation du travail. Internet et l'adoption d'ordinateurs connectés en réseau ainsi que l'élargissement des responsabilités confiées aux opérateurs tendent à réduire la part des seniors dans l'emploi. En revanche, le raccourcissement de la chaîne de commandement sous la forme d'une réduction du nombre de niveaux hiérarchiques est favorable aux seniors. La formation continue contribue à protéger les seniors, sans néanmoins annuler les effets défavorables des changements organisationnels et technologiques.

We analyze the role of training in mitigating the negative impact of technical and organizational changes on the employment of older workers. Using a panel of French firms in the late 1990s, our empirical analysis confirms that new technologies and some new workplace practices are biased against older workers. The use of the Internet and the adoption of computer networks tend to reduce the share of workers older than 50. By contrast, the reduction of the number of hierarchical layers is favourable to older workers. Training contributes to protect older workers in terms of employment and/or of wages, but does not fully undo the negative impact of technical and organizational changes.

Caroli E., Gautié J., Lamanthe A. (2009), The French Food-Processing Model : High Relative Wages and High Work Intensity, International Labour Review, 148, 4, p. 375-394

The authors examine wages and working conditions in meat processing and confectionery in France. Working there may not require much skill, or command good wages and working conditions, but this article reveals a more complex, positive situation than expected, thanks to the "French model's" national minimum wage and the extension of collective wage agreements to all workers in the sector. But pressures to lower labour costs are still felt, and the firms examined must meet pressures to increase productivity, flexibility and automation. Moreover, retail chainsalso seek to lower prices and impose just-in-time production.

Caroli E. (2007), Internal versus External Labour Flexibility : The Role of Knowledge Codification, National Institute Economic Review, 201, p. 107-118

This article uses a competence-based approach to the firm in order to analyse the recent destabilisation of internal labour markets. We argue that increasing knowledge codification made possible by the diffusion of information and communication technologies has made competences less dependent upon individuals. Knowledge has been increasingly embodied in firms themselves which has played an important role in lowering the relative cost of human resource management strategies based on external labour flexibility. As a consequence, recourse to external labour markets has developed, which may harm firms' innovative capabilities in the long run.

Aubert P., Caroli E., Roger M. (2006), New technologies, organisation and age: firm-level evidence, The Economic Journal, 116, 509, p. 73-93

We investigate the relationships between new technologies, innovative workplace practices and the age structure of the workforce in a sample of French firms. We find evidence that the wage-bill share of older workers is lower in innovative firms and that the opposite holds for younger workers. This age bias affects both men and women. It is also evidenced within occupational groups. More detailed analysis of employment inflows and outflows shows that new technologies essentially affect older workers through reduced hiring opportunities. In contrast, organisational innovations mainly affect their probability of exit, which decreases much less than for younger workers following reorganisation.

Aubert P., Caroli E., Roger M. (2006), Nouvelles technologies et nouvelles formes d'organisation du travail. Quelles conséquences pour l'emploi des salariés âgés ?, Revue Economique, 57, 6, p. 1329-1349

Cet article s'intéresse aux relations entre nouvelles technologies, changements organisationnels et structure par âge de la main-d'oeuvre. Sous l'hypothèse d'une fonction de coût translog, nous considérons que les seuls facteurs variables sont, dans un premier temps, les effectifs des différents groupes d'âge puis, dans un second temps, les effectifs des groupes d'âge par qualification. Ce modèle est estimé sur le volet « entreprises » de l'enquête c.o.i., apparié au fichier des déclarations annuelles de données sociales (dads) et au fichier des bénéfices réels normaux (brn) sur la période 1995-1998. Nous mettons en évidence une complémentarité entre introduction de nouvelles technologies et déformation de la structure de la main-d'oeuvre au détriment des salariés les plus âgés.

To investigate the relationships between new technologies, innovative workplace practices and the age structure of the workforce we start from a classical labour-demand framework, assuming that the cost function is a restricted translog. Since we are interested in age effects, the only variable inputs are different types of labour indexed first by age and second by age and occupational groups. The data we use come from several French datasets: the c.o.i. survey and the dads and brn files. We find evidence that the wage bill share of older workers decreases when new technologies are adopted.

Askenazy P., Caroli E. (2003), Pratiques « innovantes », accidents du travail et charge mentale : résultats de l'enquête française « Conditions de travail 1998 », Pistes, 05, 01, p. 30

Cet article exploite l'enquête française « Conditions de Travail 1998 » qui offre des données détaillées sur un vaste échantillon représentatif de travailleurs pour étudier l'impact de pratiques « innovantes » de travail comme la rotation de postes ou les démarches de qualité sur la santé et la sécurité au travail. Les travaux existants montrent une très grande hétérogénéité en la matière. Une méthode d'appariement, dite modèle de Rubin, montre qu'en France en 1998, même après la correction des biais de sélection et le contrôle par les caractéristiques des travailleurs et de leurs postes, la main d'oeuvre impliquée dans ces pratiques innovantes de travail déclare significativement plus d'accidents du travail et de charge mentale que les travailleurs non impliqués.

This paper investigates the impact of innovative workplace practices including job rotation and quality standards on occupational safety and mental strain. It uses a unique French dataset drawn from the 1998 Working Conditions survey, which provides information on individual workers for the year 1998, including data relating to occupational injuries and indicators of mental strain. Using Rubin's causal model, we show that, even after controlling for employee and job characteristics and correcting for sample selection bias, the workers involved in the new workplace practices still feel they suffer from greater mental strain and more occupational accidents than non-innovative workers.

Caroli E., Garc?a-Penalosa C. (2002), Risk aversion and rising wage inequality, Economics Letters, 77, 1, p. 21–26

We propose a model in which, as incomes grow, workers become less risk-averse and move from fixed-wagecontracts to variable pay. This can explain the recent increase in wage dispersion between groups, within groups,and over the lifecycle.

Askenazy P., Caroli E., Marcus V. (2002), New organizational practices and working conditions: evidence from France in the 1990's, Recherches économiques de Louvain, 68, 1-2, p. 91-110

Caroli E., Van Reenen J. (2001), Skill-Biased Organizational Change? Evidence from a panel of British and French establishments, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116, 4, p. 1449-1492

This paper investigates the determination and consequences of organizational changes (OC) in a panel of British and French establishments. Organizational changes include the decentralization of authority, delayering of managerial functions, and increased multitasking. We argue that OC and skills are complements. We offer support for the hypothesis of "skill-biased" organizational change with three empirical findings. First, organizational changes reduce the demand for unskilled workers in both countries. Second, OC is negatively associated with increases in regional skill price differentials (a measure of the relative supply of skill). Third, OC leads to greater productivity increases in establishments with larger initial skill endowments. Technical change is also complementary with human capital, but the effects of OC is not simply due to its correlation with technological change but has an independent role.

Caroli E., Greenan N., Guellec D. (2001), Organizational Change and Skill Accumulation, Industrial and Corporate Change, 10, 2, p. 481-506

We model the links between skills and changes in work organization. As the proportion of skilled workers increases, the economy travels through a sequence of organizational equilibria. We show that as the relative supply of skills increases the organization of work becomes more decentralized. Both skilled and unskilled workers become more autonomous and perform a wider range of tasks: decentralization spreads across firms at the expense of the old centralized organization based on a strict division of labor. Moreover, as firms switch to decentralization, their employment structure becomes more homogeneous and wage inequality stops decreasing. These predictions are compared with empirical evidence based on French establishment-level data and we find support for both of them. This suggests that the long-term increase in the skill level of the workforce may have been one important factor driving the recent introduction of new work practices by a large number of firms.

Aghion P., Caroli E., Garcia-Penalosa C. (1999), Inequality and Economic Growth: The Perspective of the New Growth Theories, The Journal of Economic Literature, 37, 4, p. 1615-1660

We analyze the relationship between inequality and economic growth from two directions. The first part of the survey examines the effect of inequality on growth, showing that when capital markets are imperfect, there is not necessarily a trade-off between equity and efficiency. It therefore provides an explanation for two recent empirical findings, namely, the negative impact of inequality and the positive effect of redistribution upon growth. The second part analyzes several mechanisms whereby growth may increase wage inequality, both across and within education cohorts. Technical change, and in particular the implementation of "General Purpose Technologies," stands as a crucial factor in explaining the recent upsurge in wage inequality.

Caroli E. (1996), Qualifications intermédiaires et rapport de formation dans cinq pays de l'OCDE : Allemagne, France, Japon, Grande-Bretagne et Etats-Unis, La Revue de l'IRES, 21, p. 5-36

Caroli E., Huberman B., Glance N. (1995), Formation en entreprise et débauchage de main d'oeuvre aux Etats-Unis : un modèle dynamique d'action collective, Revue Economique, 46, 3, p. 807-816

Nous proposons, dans cet article, un modèle dynamique d'action collective permettant d'étudier les conditions d'émergence d'un système de formation en entreprise dans l'économie américaine. Ce type de formation comporte certaines des caractéristiques d'un bien collectif et sa production soulève, de ce fait, un pro­blème de coordination de type dilemme du prisonnier à n joueurs. Nous modélisons celui-ci à l'aide d'un formalisme emprunté à la mécanique statistique et en supposant les entreprises fortement hétérogènes. Nous montrons qu'un équilibre à haut niveau de formation en entreprise peut en théorie émerger spontanément. Cela s'avère cependant impossible pour des valeurs des paramètres caractéristi­ques de l'économie américaine.

Training and labor poaching in the U.S : a dynamical model of collective action This article presents a dynamical model of collective action which provides a framework for studying whether the American economy may ever spontaneously shift towards a high-training equilibrium in the absence of any institutional intervention. In-firm training has some of the characteristics of a collective good and its production thus raises a pro­blem of coordination, very close to a n-player prisoner's dilemma. We modelize this pro­blem, borrowing from statistical physics and assuming that firms are heterogeneous. We show that, in theory, a high-training equilibrium may eventually emerge, in the long run. However, this proves impossible in the United-States given the values of the parameters for the American economy.

Caroli E. (1994), Croissance et formation : le rôle de la politique éducative, Economie et Prévision, 116, p. 49-61

Croissance et formation : le rôle de la politique éducative, par Eve Caroli. Nous proposons, dans cet article, une première approche de la relation entre croissance et politique de formation. Nous reprenons et étendons, pour ce faire, le modèle élaboré par R. Lucas en 1988 qui constitue l'une des premières tentatives d'endogénéisation du capital humain dans un modèle de croissance. Notre hypothèse est que la productivité du temps moyen par individu consacré à la formation - en termes de taux de croissance du capital humain - n'est pas indépendante des caractéristiques du système éducatif. Nous supposons qu'il s'agit d'une fonction croissante mais saturante du taux d'encadrement qui constitue ici la variable exogène de politique éducative. Corrélativement, l'expression de la fonction de production tient compte du fait que les formateurs sont autant d'actifs en moins dans le secteur de la production finale. La résolution du modèle met en évidence le fait que le long du sentier de croissance équilibrée, le taux de croissance de l'économie est une fonction croissante puis décroissante du taux d'encadrement. Cela signifie qu'au-delà d'un certain seuil, l'augmentation du taux d'encadrement est contre-productive en termes de croissance. Il existe donc une politique de formation optimale. Celle-ci varie de plus selon l'efficacité des enseignants et l'on conclut que plus la qualité du personnel enseignant est faible et/ou plus les conditions d'enseignement sont mauvaises, et plus le taux de croissance maximal que l'économie peut atteindre est faible.

Growth and Training: The Role of Education Policies, by Eve Caroli. This paper proposes a preliminary approach to the relation between growth and training policies. We use an extended version of the 1988 R. Lucas model, which was one of the first attempts at making human capital endogenous in a growth model. Our hypothesis is that the productivity of average per-capita training time - in terms of human capital growth rates - is not independent of the characteristics of the education system. We posit that it is an increasing, yet saturating, function of the training rate, which here is the exogenous variable in the education policy. Correlatively, the production function expression takes account of the fact that trainers represent so many staff less in the final production sector. The solving of the model shows that the economy's growth rate is an increasing and then decreasing function of the training rate all the way down the balanced growth path. This means that beyond a certain threshold, the increase in the training rate is counterproductive for growth. There thus exists an optimal training policy. This policy varies with the efficiency of the teachers. It is concluded that the lower the quality of the training staff and/or the poorer the teaching conditions, the lower the maximum growth rate able to be attained by the economy.

Caroli E. (1993), Les fonctions du système éducatif vu par les économistes : quelques conceptions fondatrices, Education et Formations, 35, p. 53-30

Direction d'ouvrages

Caroli E., Gautié J. (2009), Bas salaires et qualité de l'emploi : l'exception française ?, Paris, 510 p.

Quelles sont les conséquences pour les travailleurs peu qualifiés et peu rémunérés des mutations économiques des vingt-cinq dernières années ? En France, la part des travailleurs à bas salaire est relativement faible, mais leurs conditions de travail sont particulièrement dures. Cette spécificité découle de notre modèle de régulation du marché du travail.

Caroli E., Gautié J. (2008), Low-wage Work in France, New-York, 328 p.

In France, low wages have historically inspired tremendous political controversy. The social and political issues at stake center on integrating the working class into society and maintaining the stability of the republican regime. A variety of federal policies--including high minimum wages and strong employee protection--serve to ensure that the low-wage workforce stays relatively small. Low-Wage Work in France examines both the benefits and drawbacks of this politically inspired system of worker protection. France's high minimum wage, which is indexed not only to inflation but also to the average increase in employee wages, plays a critical role in limiting the development of low-paid work. Social welfare benefits and a mandatory thirty-five hour work week also make life easier for low-wage workers. Strong employee protection is a central characteristic of the French model, but high levels of protection for employees may also be one of the causes of France's chronically high rate of unemployment. The threat of long-term unemployment may, in turn, contribute to a persistent sense of insecurity among French workers. Low-Wage Work in France provides a lucid analysis of how a highly regulated labor market shapes the experiences of workers--for better and for worse.

Chapitres d'ouvrage

Askenazy P., Caroli E., Gautié J. (2009), Panorama des bas salaires et de la qualité de l'emploi peu qualifié en France, in Caroli E. (dir.), Bas salaires et qualité de l'emploi : l'exception française, p. 67-143

Caroli E., Gautié J., Lamanthe A. (2009), Les opérateurs des industries agroalimentaires à l'épreuve des pressions concurrentielles croissantes, in Caroli E. (dir.), Bas salaires et qualité de l'emploi : l'exception française ?, p. 510

Caroli E., Gautié J., Lamanthe A. (2008), Operators in Food Processing Industries: Coping with Increasing Pressure, in Caroli E. (eds), Low-wage work in France, p. 88-127

Askenazy P., Caroli E., Gautié J. (2008), Low-Wage Work and Labor Market Institutions in France, in Caroli E. (eds), Low-wage work in France, p. 315

Caroli E. (2006), Intensification du travail : où sont les coupables ?, in Askenazy P. (dir.), Organisation et intensité du travail, p. 532

Caroli E. (2001), New technologies, organizational change and the skill bias: what do we know?, in Petit Pascal ;Soete L. (eds), Technology and the Future of European Employment, p. 548

Aghion P., Caroli E., Garcia-Peñalosa C. (1998), Inequality and economic growth, in Aghion Philippe ; Williamson J. (eds), Growth, inequality, and globalization : theory, history, and policy, p. 7-102

Caroli E. (1998), Formação e performance de crescimento comparadas em cinco economias da OCDE,, Regulação econômica e globalização, p. 536

Documents de travail

Blanchet D., Caroli E., Prost C., Roger M. (2016), Health Capacity to Work at Older Ages in France, NBER Working Papers, Cambridge, MA, NBER, 42

France stands out as a country with a low labor force attachment of older workers. A reversal in the trend of French labor participation rates over 50 is under way, partly due to the pension reforms that took place since 1993. The French ageing process is driven by large gains in life expectancy and Pension reforms allocate part of these gains to work rather than to retirement. The implicit assumptions guiding the reforms have been that additional years of life are years with a health status that can be considered reasonably compatible with work. If this is not the case, the idea of sharing these additional years of life between work and retirement is questionable.Considering mortality and health status, we question the fact that the reforms may have gone too far in increasing the retirement age. To tackle these issues, we rely on two different methodological approaches developed in the economic literature: one based on the gap in employment rates across time for given mortality rates; the other using the work/health relationship measured at certain ages to predict the health-related work capacity of older age groups at the same period of time. Both methods aim at providing measures of additional work capacity. This capacity may be defined as a measure of the distance between current retirement ages and what we call the "health barrier", i.e. the age at which health prevents people from working longer.Both methods predict high average levels of additional work capacity. However, the picture becomes somewhat different when disaggregating the results by social groups or education. Our results emphasize the idea that policies aiming at activating any estimated additional work capacity should take into account, when possible, the heterogeneity of health conditions in the population. Moreover, additional work capacity cannot be a general indicator of how much seniors should work. The methods used here indeed leave aside many factors that determine the employment rate of older workers.

Caroli E., Bassanini A. (2014), Is work bad for health? The role of constraint vs choice, IZA Discussion Papers, Bonn, IZA, 28

Dans cet article, nous passons en revue la littérature sur l'impact du travail sur la santé. Nous considérons le travail selon deux dimensions : (i)la marge intensive, à savoir le nombre d'heures travaillées par un individu et (ii) la marge extensive, c'est-à-dire le fait qu'un individu soit ou non en emploi, indépendamment du nombre d'heures travaillées. Nous montrons que l'effet néfaste du travail sur la santé, mis en évidence dans la littérature, est basé sur des situations dans lesquelles les salariés n'ont, pour l'essentiel, aucun contrôle (aucun choix) sur la quantité de travail qu'ils fournissent. Dans les faits, l'effet néfaste sur la santé ne proviendrait pas tant du travail en soi que de l'écart éventuel entre la quantité de travail effectivement fournie et la quantité désirée, tant à la marge intensive qu'à la marge extensive.

This paper reviews the literature on the impact ofwork on health. We consider work along two dimensions: (i) the intensive margin, i.e. how many hours an individual works and (ii) the extensive margin, i.e. whether an individual is in employment or not, independent of the number of hours worked. We show that most of the evidence on the negative health impact of work found in the literature is based on situations in which workers have essentially no control (no choice) over theamount of work they provide. In essence, what is detrimental to health is not so much work per se as much as the gap which may exist between the actual and the desired amount of work, both at the intensive and extensive margins.

Caroli E., Galbiati R., Bignon V. (2014), Stealing to Survive : Crime and Income Shocks in 19th Century France, Discussion Paper Series, Bonn, 60

Using local administrative data from 1826 to 1936, we document the evolution of crime ratesin 19th century France and we estimate the impact of a negative income shock on crime. Ouridentification strategy exploits the phylloxera crisis. Between 1863 and 1890, phylloxeradestroyed about 40% of French vineyards. We use the geographical variation in the timing ofthis shock to identify its impact on property and violent crime rates, as well as minor offences.Our estimates suggest that the phylloxera crisis caused a substantial increase in propertycrime rates and a significant decrease in violent crimes.

Brunello G., Bassanini A., Caroli E. (2014), Not in my Community: Social Pressure and the Geography of Dismissals, LEda Working Papers, Paris, Université Paris-Dauphine, 46

There is growing evidence that social pressure shapes firms' behavior. Given how sensitive communitiesare to downsizing, this suggests that firms are likely to be under strong social pressure when considering reducing employment. Using French linked employer-employee data, we show that social pressure induces firms torefrain from dismissing at short distance from their headquarters. More specifically, we find that, within firms, secondary establishments located further away fromheadquarters have higher dismissal rates than thoselocated closer, taking into account the possible endogeneity of plant location. We also find that the positive effect of distance on dismissals increases with the visibility of the firm in the local community of its headquarters. This effect is also stronger the greater the degree of selfishness of the community in which the headquarters are located. This suggests that local social pressure at headquarters is a key determinant of the positiverelationship between distance to headquarters and dismissals. We show that our results cannot be entirely accounted for by alternative explanations of the distance-dismissal relationship that are put forward in the literature.

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