Jeanmougin M., Dehais C., Meinard Y. (2016), Mismatch between habitat science and habitat directive - lessons from the French (counter)example, Conservation Letters, p. 1-11
The European Habitat Directive encompasses a conservation policy devoted to conserve habitats rather than single species. This ambition has strong ecological justifications, and inspires other initiatives such as the IUCN red list of ecosystems. Evaluating this policy is therefore pivotal to identify and reproduce best practices. However, the habitat aspect of this policy has so far not been systematically assessed. To make up for this lacuna, we take advantage of decision-aiding methodologies to introduce a new normative framework. According to this framework a conservation policy is positively evaluated if it contributes to conservation, is science-based, operational and legitimate. Based on an exploration of the published literature and unpublished reports and databases, we identify knowledge gaps plaguing the European habitat conservation policy. We argue that, due to these knowledge gaps, the contribution of this policy to the conservation of habitats is unproven, it is not science-based, not operational and not legitimate. Our study draws heavily on the French implementation. Analyzing this example, we highlight knowledge gaps that carry lessons for European conservation policies as a whole, but also for conservation initiatives focused on habitats in a broader geographical and political context. We then identify concrete means to strengthen habitats conservation policies.
El Mekkaoui-De Freitas N., Oliveira Martins J. (2014), Health, Pension Benefits and Longevity How They Affect Household Savings?, The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, 3, p. 21â28
This paper analyses the impact of health, pension systems and longevity on savings. It uses a simple life-cycle model embodying social transfers (health care and pension expenditures) and changes in longevity to determine the level of household savings. From this model, we derived an econometric specification, augmented with the effects of public budget balances. The model is estimated for a panel of 22 OECD countries for the period 1970-2009. Our principal result is that, from the point of view of incentive to save, health transfers have a similar impact as pension replacement rates. Therefore, welfare reforms that reduce replacement rates without reforming health system may not have all the expected impact on household savings. In line with life-cycle theory, we found that longevity increases saving ratios.
Degrassat-Théas A., Paubel P., Parent de Curzon O., Le Pen C., Sinègre M. (2013), Temporary Authorization for Use: Does the French Patient Access Programme for Unlicensed Medicines Impact Market Access After Formal Licensing?, PharmacoEconomics, 31, 4, p. 335-343
Background To reach the French market, a new drug requires a marketing authorization (MA) and price and reimbursement agreements. These hurdles could delay access to new and promising drugs. Since 1992, French law authorizes the use of unlicensed drugs on an exceptional and temporary basis through a compassionate-use programme, known as Temporary Authorization for Use (ATU). This programme was implemented to improve early access to drugs under development or authorized abroad. However, it is suspected to be inflationary, bypassing public bodies in charge of health technology assessment (HTA) and of pricing. Objective The aim of this study is to observe the market access after the formal licensing of drugs that went through this compassionate-use programme. Methods We included all ATUs that received an MA between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2010. We first examined market access delays from these drugs using the standard administrative path. We positioned this result in relation to launch delays observed in France (for all outpatient drugs) and in other major European markets. Second, we assessed the bargaining power of a hospital purchaser after those drugs had obtained an MA by calculating the price growth rate after the approval. Results During the study period, 77 ATUs were formally licensed. The study concluded that, from the patient's perspective, licensing and public bodies' review time was shortened by a combined total of 36 months. The projected 11-month review time of public bodies may be longer than delays usually observed for outpatient drugs. Nonetheless, the study revealed significant benefits for French patient access based on comparable processing to launch time with those of other European countries with tight price control policies. In return, a 12 % premium, on average, is paid to pharmaceutical companies while drugs are under this status (sub-analysis on 56 drugs). Conclusions In many instances, the ATU programme responds to a public health need by accelerating the availability of new drugs even though this study suggests an impact of the programme on the market access of these drugs for which the standard administrative path is longer than usual. In addition, pharmaceutical companies seem to market compassionate-use drugs with a presumed benefit/risk ratio at a price that guarantees a margin for future negotiation.
Oliveira Martins J., De Macedo J. (2008), Growth, Reform Indicators and Policy Complementarities, Economics of Transition, 16, 2, p. 141-164
In order to assess the growth implications of policy complementarities, this paper applies second-best results to reform indicators. During the transition from central planning to EU integration, which corresponds to a policy cycle, a complementarity index based on structural indicators compiled by the European Bank for Reconstruc- tion and Development (EBRD) decreases and then increases while the level of reforms tends to rise throughout. Corrected for initial conditions, the extent of macroeconomic stabilization and endogeneity, the level of reforms and changes in their complementarity are found to be positively related to output growth. The study uses panel data for 27 countries between 1989 and 2004.
Burckel D., Chavanel O., Lemoyne M., Ould Brahim A., Simon A., Tannenbaum P. (2014), La détention d'actifs immobiliers, in Burckel D. (dir.), Management de l'immobilier, Paris, Vuibert, p. 329-346
Martin A., Darpy D. (2015), L'importance du projet de design dans l'appropriation des objets partagés : le cas d'Autolib, 31ème Congrès International de l'Association française du marketing (AFM 2015), Marrakech, Morocco
La présente recherche vise à mettre en évidence le rôle crucial du design de produit et de service dans l'appropriation des objets partagés par les consommateurs. Se situant dans le cadre de l'économie de partage lorsque celui-ci est réalisé pour des raisons économiques, l'étude présentée s'intéresse au cas de l'entreprise d'autopartage Autolib à Paris. Les résultats montrent que lorsqu'un projet de design conjoint de produit et de service est mené, les utilisateurs peuvent s'approprier les objets alors même que ceux-ci sont partagés avec d'autres.
The present research highlights the crucial role of both product and service design in the appropriation of shared objects by consumers. The research is grounded in the sharing economy and focuses on the carsharing system Autolib in Paris. Results show that when the design combines both product and service, users can appropriate the cars even though these are shared with others.
Martin A., Darpy D. (2015), The Role of Design in the Appropriation of Shared Objects: Autolib in Paris,
This article looks at consumers' appropriation of cars in a carsharing system. Underpinned by research on design and design knowledge, our paper illustrates how specific design elements contributed to the appropriation of shared vehicles through controlling, knowing and creating the product and the service.
Martin A., Darpy D. (2014), Design and Identities: the case of carsharing, 19th DMI: Academic Design Management Conference: Design Management in an Era of Disruption, Londres, Royaume-Uni
Amongst the collaborative consumptions arising nowadays, sharing is one of the most widespread systems. Sharing traditionally owned objects such as cars has certainly affected the consumer-possessions relationship. This paper shows the role of design in both identity and brand community building, in the context of carsharing. The carsharing system Autolib in Paris is the research field of this paper. Data from the interviews is analysed through a grounded theory method. Consistent, homogenous and peculiar car design helps a personal appropriation of a shared car by its users. In addition some design elements contribute to brand community development, mostly by creating shared rituals.
Cornaz D., Furini F., Lacroix M., Malaguti E., Mahjoub A., Martin S. (2014), Mathematical formulations for the Balanced Vertex k-Separator Problem,
Given an indirected graph G = (V;E), a Vertex k-Separator is a subset of the vertex set V such that, when the separator is removed from the graph, the remaining vertices can be partitioned into k subsets that are pairwise edge-disconnected. In this paper we focus on the Balanced Vertex k-Separator Problem, i.e., the problem of finding a minimum cardinality separator such that the sizes of the resulting disconnected subsets are balanced. We present a compact Integer Linear Programming formulation for the problem, and present a polyhedral study of the associated polytope. We also present an Exponential-Size formulation, for which we derive a column generation and a branching scheme. Preliminary computational results are reported comparing the performance of the two formulations on a set of benchmark instances.
Degrassat-Théas A., Paubel P., Parent de Curzon O., Berard F., Poisson N., Sinègre M., Le Pen C. (2012), Is Orphan Designation a Driver of Orphan Drug Pricing?, ISPOR 15th Annual European Congress, Berlin, Allemagne
Objectives Policy makers pay more and more attention to the orphan drug market. Pharmaceutical companies are suspected to take advantage of the legislation. Moreover, granted an orphan designation (OD) could be associated with higher prices. The aim of this work is to assess the impact of the current European orphan drug legislation on prices within the rare disease market of the largest University Medical Center in France (AP-HP). Methods We included all drugs with exclusively rare disease indications, with or without (control group) European OD prior to European marketing authorization. We collected 2011 AP-HP prices and additional characteristics: prevalence of rare diseases; alternative drug existence and improvement in medical benefit (ASMR) assessed by the French National Authority for Health (HAS). Results From drugs indicated for rare diseases available in AP-HP, we retrieved those for which all additional characteristics were documented: 41 drugs with OD, 17 without OD. The contribution to the growth of the overall drug expenditures in AP-HP reached 1.16 points out of 3.40 points for OD drugs (99% of growth was explained by 3 drugs) and 0.39 for non OD drugs. No statistically significant difference in the price distribution was found between OD drugs (median: EUR180.4; interquartile range: EUR679.9) and non OD drugs (median: EUR443.9; interquartile range: EUR1433.1) (p=0.19). The price distributions were scattered (standard deviation: 1040.2 and 3512.1 respectively). Other characteristics between the two groups were not statistically different. Conclusions Concerns on the growing budgetary pressure of orphan drugs may affect social solidarity, and yet this study underlines the heterogeneity of the rare disease market. From these study results, OD approval should not be considered as the only price inflation cause. If the legislation should be adapted to limit windfall effects for pharmaceutical companies, the support of innovation in a fairness and egalitarian way is needed.
Sinègre M., Le Pen C., Parent de Curzon O., Paubel P., Degrassat-Théas A. (2011), Temporary use authorizations : the economic and clinical future of drugs used in the french compassionate program, ISPOR 14th Annual European congress : "Rational Health Care Decision Making in Challenging Economic Times", Madrid, Espagne
Perrin-Martinenq D. (2002), Le détachement de la marque : conceptualisation, antécédents et proposition d'une échelle de mesure, 2nd Nordic Workshop on Relationship Dissolution, Visby, Suède
Après avoir clarifié le concept de détachement de la marque, cette communication présente les résultats de notre première collecte de données. La première partie de ce papier conceptualise le phénomène de détachement de la marque : après une présentation succincte de la littérature sur le détachement, nous exposons notre approche de ce concept. Puis, nous présentons certains résultats de notre étude qualitative pour appréhender ses antécédents et mettre en exergue son impact sur la fidélité à la marque. La seconde partie présentes nos premiers résultats quantitatifs et particulièrement ceux relatifs à la construction d'une échelle de mesure. Le détachement de la marque semble avoir deux dimensions : une affective et une cognitive. Enfin, les facteurs activant le processus de détachement de la marque sont exposés.
Having clarified the concept of brand detachment, this communication presents the results of our first data collection. The first part of this paper conceptualises the phenomenon of brand detachment : After a succinct presentation of the literature on detachment, we expose our approach of this concept. Then, we present some results of our qualitative research to apprehend its antecedents and outline its impact on brand loyalty. The second part presents the first quantitative results relative to our study and particularly the creation of a measurement scale. Brand detachment seems to have two dimensions : an affective and a cognitive. Finally, the factors activating the process of brand detachment are exposed.
Perrin-Martinenq D. (2002), Conceptualisation du détachement de la marque, XVIIIe congrès international de l'Association Française de Marketing, Lille, France
La présente communication expose les résultats d'une étude qualitative exploratoire portant sur le concept de détachement de la marque. La découverte de certains antécédents et effets de cet état nous a conduit à proposer une base conceptuelle pour l'appréhension de ce phénomène en comportement du consommateur. Celle-ci souligne l'apport du détachement dans la compréhension des processus de détérioration des relations entre la marque et le consommateur.
Hadji, B., Martin, G., Dupuis I., Campoy, E., Degoulet, P., (2016), 14 years longitudinal evaluation of clinical information systems acceptance: the HEGP case, The International Journal of Medical Informatics, 86, pp.20-29