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Gajdos T., Garrouste C., Geoffard P-Y. (2016), The subjective value of a life with Down syndrome: Evidence from amniocentesis decision, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 127, p. 59â69
Using a simple theoretical decision model and an original database, we were able to elicit the distribution of the utility value of having a child with Down syndrome for a large sample of French pregnant women (n = 28,341) between 2003 and 2007. We found that, on a scale where the value of a fetal death is 0 and the value of a healthy child is 1, the mean value for a child with Down syndrome is about -0.6. Assuming that the policymaker used the same decision model as the women, we infer from the French amniocentesis reimbursement regulation an implicit social value for a child with Down syndrome of -2.5. We conclude from our study that the policymaker is more likely to prevent the birth of children with Down syndrome than French women themselves.
Garrouste C., Godard M. (2016), The Lasting Health Impact of Leaving School in a Bad Economy: Britons in the 1970s Recession, Health Economics, 25, S2, p. 70â92
This paper investigates whether leaving school in a bad economy deteriorates health in the long run. It focuses on low-educated individuals in England and Wales who entered the labour market immediately after the 1973 oil crisis. Our identification strategy relies on the comparison of individuals who left school at the compulsory age, were born in the same year and had a similar quantity of education - but whose school-leaving behaviour in different years (hence, different economic conditions) was exogenously implied by compulsory schooling laws. We provide evidence that, unlike school-leavers who did postpone their entry into the labour market during the recessions of the 1980s and 1990s, pupils' decisions to leave school at the compulsory age immediately after the 1973 oil crisis were not endogenous to the contemporaneous economic conditions at labour-market entry. We use a repeated cross section of individuals over the period 1983-2001 from the General Household Survey and adopt a lifecourse perspective, from 7 to 26 years after school-leaving. Our results show that poor economic conditions at labour-market entry are particularly damaging to women's health. For men, the health impact of poor economic conditions at labour-market entry is less obvious and not robust to all specifications.
Garrouste C., Le J., Maurin E. (2011), The Choice of Detecting Down Syndrome: Does Money Matter?, Health Economics, 20, 9, p. 1073-1089
The prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome (amniocentesis) presents parents with a complex dilemma which requires comparing the risk of giving birth to an affected child and the risk of losing an unaffected child through amniocentesis-related miscarriage. Building on the specific features of the French Health insurance system, this paper shows that variation in the monetary costs of the diagnosis procedure may have a very significant impact on how parents solve this ethical dilemma. The French institutions make it possible to compare otherwise similar women facing very different reimbursement schemes and we find that eligibility to full reimbursement has a largely positive effect on the probability of taking an amniocentesis test. By contrast, the sole fact of being labelled 'high-risk' by the Health system seems to have, as such, only a modest effect on subsequent choices. Finally, building on available information on post-amniocentesis outcomes, we report new evidence suggesting that amniocentesis increases the risk of premature birth and low weight at birth.
Ferretti C., Garrouste C. (2008), Les sept premières années de carrière des infirmiers diplômés en 1998, Etudes et résultats, 671, p. 8
Dans cette étude nous analysons le parcours professionnel des infirmiers au cours des sept années suivant leur sortie de formation à partir des données de l'enquête Génération 98 du Centre d'études et de recherches sur les qualifications (CEREQ). Il en ressort que les infirmiers s'insèrent plus facilement que les autres diplômés de niveau proche ou équivalent et accèdent rapidement à des emplois stables. Pour accéder à l'emploi, ils sont rarement contraints à quitter leur région d'origine. À leur sortie de formation initiale, ils sont mieux rémunérés que les autres diplômés. Cependant, leurs revenus réels évoluent plus faiblement. Ainsi, la rémunération constitue une des rares sources d'insatisfaction des infirmiers. Au sein de la profession, les infirmiers spécialisés (puéricultrices, infirmiers psychiatriques, autres spécialités) salariés du secteur public sont mieux rémunérés que ceux du privé. Les infirmiers sont, parmi les diplômés de niveau proche ou équivalent, ceux qui effectuent le moins de reconversions professionnelles. De fait, ils suivent moins de formations que les autres au cours des sept premières années de vie professionnelle.
Garrouste C., Godard M. (2015), The lasting health impact of leaving school in a bad economy: Britons in the 1970's recession, AFSE 2015 64th Congress, Rennes, France
This paper investigates whether leaving school in a bad economy deteriorates health in the long-run. It focuses on individuals in England and Wales who left full-time education in their last year of compulsory schooling immediately after the 1973 oil crisis. Unemployment rates sharply increased in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis, so that between 1974 and 1976, each school cohort faced worse economic conditions at labour-market entry than the previous one. Our identification strategy relies on the comparison of very similar pupils - born the same year and with a similar quantity of education (in months) - whose school-leaving behaviour in different economic conditions was exogeneouly implied by compulsory schooling laws. Unlike school-leavers who did postpone their entry on the labour market during the 1980s and 1990s recessions, we provide evidence that pupils' decisions to leave school at compulsory age immediately after the 1973 oil crisis were not endogeneous to the contemporaneous economic conditions at labour market entry. We use a repeated cross section of individuals over 1983-2001 from the General Household Survey (GHS) and take a lifecourse perspective, from 7 to 26 years after school-leaving. Our results show that poor economic conditions at labour-market entry are particularly damaging to women's health. Women who left school in a bad economy are more likely to report poorer health and to consult a general practitioner over the whole period under study (1983-2001). Additional evidence suggests that they are also more likely to suffer from a longstanding illness/disability over the whole period. As for men, the health impact of poor economic conditions at labour-market entry is more mixed, and not robust across all specifications. However, we never find that leaving school in a bad economy is beneficial to their health. Finally, our results show that leaving school in a bad economy does not have a lasting impact on labour-market outcomes from 7 to 26 years after school-leaving, neither for men, nor for women.
Garrouste C., Cambois E., Pailhé A. (2015), Comment les différences de parcours professionnels contribuent - elles aux écarts de santé entre femmes et hommes ?, Colloque "Santé et itinéraire professionnel : état des lieux et perspectives", Paris, FRANCE
Garrouste C., Godard M. (2014), "School's out for summer, school's out forever": the long-term health consequences of leaving school during a bad economy,
This paper investigates whether leaving school in a bad economy deteriorates health in the longrun.We focus on individuals in England and Wales who left full-time education in their last year ofcompulsory schooling immediately after the 1973 oil crisis. Our identification strategy builds on twosources. First, it relies on the comparison of very similar individuals - born the same year - whoseschool-leaving behaviour in different economic conditions was exogeneously induced by compulsoryschooling laws. More specifically, within a same birth cohort, pupils born at the end of the calendaryear (September to December) were forced to leave school almost a year later than pupils bornearlier in the year (January to August). Second, we exploit the sharp increase in unemploymentrates generated by the 1973 oil crisis. Between 1974 and 1976, each school cohort indeed facedworse economic conditions at labour-market entry than the previous one. Unlike school-leavers whodid postpone their entry on the labour market during the 1980s and 1990s recessions, we provideevidence that pupils' decisions to leave school at compulsory age between 1974 and 1976 were notendogeneous to the contemporaneous economic conditions at labour market entry. We use a repeatedcross section of individuals over 1983-2001 from the General Household Survey (GHS) and take alife-course perspective, from 7 to 26 years after school-leaving. Our results show that men who leftschool in a bad economy have a higher probability of smoking over the whole period (1983-2001)and of having ever smoked. Women who left school in a bad economy are more likely to reportpoorer health over the whole period under study. They also have a higher probability to restricttheir activity due to illness or injury and to consult the General Practitioner. We do not find anysignificant effects of poor economic conditions at labour-market entry on subsequent labour-market,marriage and fertility outcomes.
Garrouste C., Blake H. (2012), Collateral effects of a pension reform in France, HEDG working papers, York, University of York, 58
How does the retirement age affect the physical and mental health of seniors? We identify this effect based on the 1993 reform of the French pension system, which was heterogeneously introduced among the population. With each cohort, the French government gradually increased the incentive to work using two tools: the contribution period required for entitlement to a full pension and the number of reference earning years taken to calculate pensions. We use a unique database on health and employment in France in 1999 and 2005, when the cohorts affected by the reform started to retire. A difference-in-differences approach, with the control group comprising public sector employees (not concerned by the 1993 reform), finds that the people more affected by the reform, and hence with a stronger incentive to work, were those posting less of an improvement and even a deterioration in their health between 1999 and 2005. Subsequently, taking the reform as a tool to filter out the potential influence of health on employment choices, we show that retirement improves physical and social health. The more physically impacted are the low-educated individuals.