Curriculum vitae

Sztulman Aude

Maître de conférences

Aude.SZTULMANping@dauphinepong.fr
Tel : 01 44 05 49 53
Bureau : P115

Publications

Articles

Menéndez M., Siroën J-M., Sztulman A. (2015), Are Free Trade Zones a Development Model?, Dialogue, 41, p. 2-12

A partir des années 1980, la plupart des pays en développement adoptent des politiques commerciales ouvertes. Ils abaissent leurs droits de douane, adhérent à l'OMC et, pour certains d'entre eux, négocient des accords de libreéchange.

Sztulman A., Menéndez M., Castilho M. (2012), Trade Liberalization, Inequality and Poverty in Brazilian States, World development, 40, 4, p. 821-835

This paper studies the impact of trade liberalization and international trade on household income inequality and poverty using detailed micro-data across Brazilian states, from 1987 to 2005. Results suggest that Brazilian states that were more exposed to tariff cuts experienced smaller reductions in household poverty and inequality. If significance of results on Brazilian states depends on the choice of poverty and inequality indicators, robust and contrasting results emerge when we disaggregate into rural and urban areas within states. Trade liberalization contributes to poverty and inequality increases in urban areas and may be linked to inequality declines in rural areas (no significant effect on rural poverty appears from our study). In terms of observed integration to world markets, import penetration plays a similar role as trade liberalization for Brazilian states as a whole. On the contrary, rising export exposure appears to have significantly reduced both measures of household welfare.

Bensidoun I., Jean S., Sztulman A. (2011), International trade and income distribution : reconsidering the evidence, Review of World Economics, 147, 4, p. 593-619

This article reassesses the link between international trade and income distribution. We argue that one way to assess the influence of international trade upon income distribution is to take account of each country's specific trade patterns by measuring the changes in the factor content of trade. The econometric specification is based on changes in Gini indices (over non-overlapping 4-year intervals), computed exclusively from series drawn from the same source. Our results show that a change in the factor content of trade has a significant impact on income distribution. The sign and magnitude of this impact is conditional on the national income level. We find that an increase in the labor content of trade raises income inequality in poor countries, but reduces it in rich countries (the reverse is true for the capital content of trade). In particular, we show that in the 1980s and 1990s, international trade may have contributed significantly to widening income inequalities in developing countries.

Communications

Menéndez M., Castilho M., Sztulman A. (2009), Trade Liberalization, Inequality and Poverty in Brazilian States, Premier Colloque bi-annuel du GDRI DREEM : " Inégalités et développement dans les pays méditerranéens", Istanbul, Turquie

This paper studies the impact of trade liberalization and international trade on household income inequality and poverty using detailed micro-data across Brazilian states, from 1987 to 2005. Results suggest that Brazilian states that were more exposed to tariff cuts experienced smaller reductions in household poverty and inequality. If significance of results on Brazilian states depends on the choice of poverty and inequality indicators, robust and contrasting results emerge when we disaggregate into rural and urban areas within states. Trade liberalization contributes to poverty and inequality increases in urban areas and may be linked to inequality declines in rural areas (no significant effect on rural poverty appears from our study). In terms of observed integration to world markets, import penetration plays a similar role as trade liberalization for Brazilian states as a whole. On the contrary, rising export exposure appears to have significantly reduced both measures of household welfare.

Documents de travail

Bensidoun I., Sztulman A. (2015), Egypt 1998-2012: From Public Protected Employment to Insecure Informal Employment, a Labor Market in Dire Straits, Document de travail du CEE, Noisy-Le-Grand, Centre d'Etudes de l'Emploi, 29

Le marché du travail égyptien a connu, au cours des deux dernières décennies, des mutations importantes que les revendications sociales de la révolution de janvier 2011 ont mises au jour. Parmi elles, le manque de sécurité des emplois et la faible couverture sociale qui leur est associée ont été particulièrement dénoncés. Aussi l'objectif de ce travail est-il de présenter un panorama de l'emploi en Égypte, en s'intéressant en particulier à l'évolution de l'emploi informel. À cette fin, les données individuelles issues d'enquêtes sur les ménages représentatives au niveau national et disponibles pour trois années (1998, 2006 et 2012) seront mobilisées. Les analyses descriptive et économétrique montrent que le désengagement de l'État en tant que pourvoyeur d'emplois a été particulièrement marqué sur cette période. Dans le même temps, son absence d'engagement à faire respecter la législation du travail dans le secteur privé s'est traduit par une progression significative de l'emploi informel. Ce dernier touche particulièrement les hommes, les jeunes et les moins éduqués, bien que l'âge et l'éducation assurent, avec le temps, une protection de moins en moins efficace face à l'emploi informel. À cette absence de protection sociale de la plupart des emplois privés s'ajoute la précarité qui caractérise nombre d'entre eux.

Over the last two decades the Egyptian labor market has undergone major changes that the social claims of the January 2011 revolution brought to light. Among them, lack of job security and associated weak social protection have been particularly criticized. Therefore the aim of this article is to present an overview of employment in Egypt, with a specific focus on the evolution of informal employment. To this end we use individual data from nationally representative household surveys carried out in 1998, 2006 and 2012. The descriptive and econometric analysis illustrates that over the period studied the withdrawal of the state as a provider of employment was very marked. Simultaneously, the state's lack of commitment to enforce labor laws in the private sector has led to a significant increase in informal employment. Informal jobs concern specifically men, young people and the less qualified workers. Though, over time, age and education provide less effective protection against informal employment. The majority of private sector jobs not only lack social protection but are also becoming more and more insecure.

Fouquin M., Jean S., Sztulman A. (1998), Le marché du travail britannique vu de France, Document de travail - Centre d'études prospectives et d'informations internationales, Paris, CEPII, 59

Ce document de travail propose une analyse quantitative détaillée sur longue période du fonctionnement du marche du travail britannique, avec la France pour point de comparaison. Au-delà des problèmes de mesure du taux de chômage, l'étude des créations nettes d'emplois montre que la performance du Royaume-Uni a été meilleure que celle de la France au cours des vingt dernières années. Le différentiel de croissance par tête observe au cours de cette période au profit du royaume-Uni en constitue l'une des explications principales.

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